0.17
The project is in a healthy, maintained state
Rails framework for managing all types of notifications in one place
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 Project Readme

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Active Delivery

Framework providing an entry point (single interface) for all types of notifications: mailers, push notifications, whatever you want.

📖 Read the introduction post: "Crafting user notifications in Rails with Active Delivery"

Sponsored by Evil Martians

Requirements:

  • Ruby ~> 2.5

NOTE: although most of the examples in this readme are Rails-specific, this gem could be used without Rails/ActiveSupport.

The problem

We need a way to handle different notifications channel (mail, push) in one place.

From the business-logic point of view we want to notify a user, hence we need a separate abstraction layer as an entry point to different types of notifications.

The solution

Here comes Active Delivery.

In the simplest case when we have only mailers Active Delivery is just a wrapper for Mailer with (possibly) some additional logic provided (e.g., preventing emails to unsubscribed users).

Motivations behind Active Delivery:

  • Organize notifications related logic:
# Before
def after_some_action
  MyMailer.with(user: user).some_action.deliver_later if user.receive_emails?
  NotifyService.send_notification(user, "action") if whatever_else?
end

# After
def after_some_action
  MyDelivery.with(user: user).notify(:some_action)
end
  • Better testability (see Testing).

Installation

Add this line to your application's Gemfile:

gem "active_delivery"

And then execute:

bundle

Usage

The Delivery class is used to trigger notifications. It describes how to notify a user (e.g., via email or push notification or both):

class PostsDelivery < ActiveDelivery::Base
  # in most cases you don't have to specify anything in this class,
  # 'cause default transport-level classes (such as mailers)
end

It acts as a proxy in front of the different delivery channels (i.e., mailers, notifiers). That means that calling a method on delivery class invokes the same method on the corresponding sender class, e.g.:

PostsDelivery.notify(:published, user, post)

# under the hood it calls
PostsMailer.published(user, post).deliver_later

# and if you have a notifier (or any other line, see below)
PostsNotifier.published(user, post).notify_later

P.S. Naming ("delivery") is inspired by Basecamp: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=m1jOWu7woKM.

NOTE: You could specify Mailer class explicitly or by custom pattern, using resolver:

class PostsDelivery < ActiveDelivery::Base
  register_line :custom_mailer, ActiveDelivery::Lines::Mailer, resolver: ->(name) { CustomMailer }
end

Delivery also supports parameterized calling:

PostsDelivery.with(user: user).notify(:published, post)

The parameters could be accessed through the params instance method (e.g., to implement guard-like logic).

NOTE: When params are presents the parameterized mailer is used, i.e.:

PostsMailer.with(user: user).published(post)

See Rails docs for more information on parameterized mailers.

Callbacks support

NOTE: callbacks are only available if ActiveSupport is present in the app's runtime.

# Run method before delivering notification
# NOTE: when `false` is returned the execution is halted
before_notify :do_something

# You can specify a notification line (to run callback only for that line)
before_notify :do_mail_something, on: :mailer

# You can specify a notification name (to run callback only for specific notification)
after_notify :mark_user_as_notified, only: %i[user_reminder]

# if and unless options are also at your disposal
after_notify :mark_user_as_notified, if: -> { params[:user].present? }

# after_ and around_ callbacks are also supported
after_notify :cleanup

around_notify :set_context

Example:

# Let's log notifications
class MyDelivery < ActiveDelivery::Base
  after_notify do
    # You can access the notificaion name within the instance
    MyLogger.info "Delivery triggered: #{notification_name}"
  end
end

MyDeliver.notify(:something_wicked_this_way_comes)
#=> Delivery triggered: something_wicked_this_way_comes

Testing

NOTE: RSpec only for the time being.

Active Delivery provides an elegant way to test deliveries in your code (i.e., when you want to check whether a notification has been sent) through a have_delivered_to matcher:

it "delivers notification" do
  expect { subject }.to have_delivered_to(Community::EventsDelivery, :modified, event)
    .with(profile: profile)
end

You can also use such RSpec features as compound expectations and composed matchers:

it "delivers to RSVPed members via .notify" do
  expect { subject }
    .to have_delivered_to(Community::EventsDelivery, :canceled, an_instance_of(event)).with(
      a_hash_including(profile: another_profile)
    ).and have_delivered_to(Community::EventsDelivery, :canceled, event).with(
      profile: profile
    )
end

If you want to test that no notification is delivered you can use negation

specify "when event is not found" do
  expect do
    described_class.perform_now(profile.id, "123", "one_hour_before")
  end.not_to have_delivered_to(Community::EventsDelivery)
end

or use matcher

specify "when event is not found" do
  expect do
    described_class.perform_now(profile.id, "123", "one_hour_before")
  end.to have_not_delivered_to(Community::EventsDelivery)
end

NOTE: test mode activated automatically if RAILS_ENV or RACK_ENV env variable is equal to "test". Otherwise add require "active_delivery/testing/rspec" to your spec_helper.rb / rails_helper.rb manually. This is also required if you're using Spring in test environment (e.g. with help of spring-commands-rspec).

Custom "lines"

The Line class describes the way you want to transfer your deliveries.

We only provide only Action Mailer line out-of-the-box.

A line connects delivery to the sender class responsible for sending notifications.

If you want to use parameterized deliveries, your sender class must respond to .with(params) method.

Assume that we want to send messages via pigeons and we have the following sender class:

class EventPigeon
  class << self
    # Add `.with`  method as an alias
    alias with new

    # delegate delivery action to the instance
    def message_arrived(*args)
      new.message_arrived(*args)
    end
  end

  def initialize(params = {})
    # do smth with params
  end

  def message_arrived(msg)
    # send a pigeon with the message
  end
end

Now we want to add a pigeon line to our EventDelivery, that is we want to send pigeons when we call EventDelivery.notify(:message_arrived, "ping-pong!").

Line class has the following API:

class PigeonLine < ActiveDelivery::Lines::Base
  # This method is used to infer sender class
  # `name` is the name of the delivery class
  def resolve_class(name)
    name.gsub(/Delivery$/, "Pigeon").safe_constantize
  end

  # This method should return true if the sender recognizes the delivery action
  def notify?(delivery_action)
    # `handler_class` is available within the line instance
    sender_class.respond_to?(delivery_action)
  end

  # Called when we want to send message synchronously
  # `sender` here either `sender_class` or `sender_class.with(params)`
  # if params passed.
  def notify_now(sender, delivery_action, *args, **kwargs)
    # For example, our EventPigeon class returns some `Pigeon` object
    pigeon = sender.public_send(delivery_action, *args, **kwargs)
    # PigeonLaunchService do all the sending job
    PigeonService.launch pigeon
  end

  # Called when we want to send a message asynchronously.
  # For example, you can use a background job here.
  def notify_later(sender, delivery_action, *args, **kwargs)
    pigeon = sender.public_send(delivery_action, *args, **kwargs)
    # PigeonLaunchService do all the sending job
    PigeonLaunchJob.perform_later pigeon
  end
end

In case of parameterized calling, some update needs to be done on the new Line. Here is an example:

class EventPigeon
  attr_reader :params

  class << self
    # Add `.with`  method as an alias
    alias with new

    # delegate delivery action to the instance
    def message_arrived(*args)
      new.message_arrived(*args)
    end
  end

  def initialize(params = {})
    @params = params
    # do smth with params
  end

  def message_arrived(msg)
    # send a pigeon with the message
  end
end

class PigeonLine < ActiveDelivery::Lines::Base
  def notify_later(sender, delivery_action, *args, **kwargs)
    # `to_s` is important for serialization. Unless you might have error
    PigeonLaunchJob.perform_later sender.class.to_s, delivery_action, *args, **kwargs.merge(params: line.params)
  end
end

class PigeonLaunchJob < ActiveJob::Base
  def perform(sender, delivery_action, *args, params: nil, **kwargs)
    klass = sender.safe_constantize
    handler = params ? klass.with(**params) : klass.new

    handler.public_send(delivery_action, *args, **kwargs)
  end
end

NOTE: we fallback to superclass's sender class if resolve_class returns nil. You can disable automatic inference of sender classes by marking delivery as abstract:

# we don't want to use ApplicationMailer by default, don't we?
class ApplicationDelivery < ActiveDelivery::Base
  self.abstract_class = true
end

The final step is to register the line within your delivery class:

class EventDelivery < ActiveDelivery::Base
  # under the hood a new instance of PigeonLine is created
  # and used to send pigeons!
  register_line :pigeon, PigeonLine

  # you can pass additional options to customize your line
  # (and use multiple pigeons lines with different configuration)
  #
  # register_line :pigeon, PigeonLine, namespace: "AngryPigeons"
  #
  # now you can explicitly specify pigeon class
  # pigeon MyCustomPigeon
  #
  # or define pigeon specific callbacks
  #
  # before_notify :ensure_pigeon_is_not_dead, on: :pigeon
end

You can also unregister a line. For example, when subclassing another Delivery class or to remove any of the automatically added lines (e.g., mailer):

class NonMailerDelivery < ActiveDelivery::Base
  # Use unregister_line to remove any default or inherited lines
  unregister_line :mailer
end

Related projects

Contributing

Bug reports and pull requests are welcome on GitHub at https://github.com/palkan/active_delivery.

License

The gem is available as open source under the terms of the MIT License.