0.01
There's a lot of open issues
Media Types as mime types are not easily supported by frameworks such as rails.
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 Project Readme

MediaTypes

Build Status Gem Version MIT license Maintainability

Media Types based on scheme, with versioning, views, suffixes and validations.

This library makes it easy to define schemas that can be used to validate JSON objects based on their Content-Type.

Installation

Add this line to your application's Gemfile:

gem 'media_types'

And then execute:

$ bundle

Or install it yourself as:

$ gem install media_types

Usage

Define a validation:

require 'media_types'

module Acme
  MediaTypes::set_organisation Acme, 'acme'

  class FooValidator
    include MediaTypes::Dsl

    use_name 'foo'

    validations do
      attribute :foo, String
    end
  end
end

Validate an object:

Acme::FooValidator.validate!({ foo: 'bar' })

Full example

require 'media_types'

class Venue
  include MediaTypes::Dsl
  
  def self.organisation
    'mydomain'
  end
  
  use_name 'venue'

  validations do
    version 2 do
      attribute :name, String
      collection :location do
        attribute :latitude, Numeric
        attribute :longitude, Numeric
        attribute :altitude, AllowNil(Numeric)
      end

      link :self
      link :route, allow_nil: true
    end
    
    version 1 do
      attribute :name, String
      attribute :coords, String
      attribute :updated_at, String
    
      link :self
    end
    
    view 'create' do
      collection :location do
        attribute :latitude, Numeric
        attribute :longitude, Numeric
        attribute :altitude, AllowNil(Numeric)
      end
      
      version 1 do
        collection :location do
          attribute :latitude, Numeric
          attribute :longitude, Numeric
          attribute :altitude, AllowNil(Numeric)
        end
      end
    end
  end
end

Schema Definitions

If you include 'MediaTypes::Dsl' in your class you can use the following functions within a validation do block to define your schema:

attribute

Adds an attribute to the schema, if a +block+ is given, uses that to test against instead of +type+

param type description
key Symbol the attribute name
opts Hash options to pass to Scheme or Attribute
type Class, ===, Scheme The type of the value can be anything that responds to ===, or scheme to use if no &block is given. Defaults to Object without a &block and to Hash with a &block.
optional: TrueClass, FalseClass if true, key may be absent, defaults to false
&block Block defines the scheme of the value of this attribute

Add an attribute named foo, expecting a string

require 'media_types'

class MyMedia
  include MediaTypes::Dsl

  validations do
    attribute :foo, String
  end
end

MyMedia.valid?({ foo: 'my-string' })
# => true

Add an attribute named foo, expecting nested scheme

class MyMedia
 include MediaTypes::Dsl

 validations do
   attribute :foo do
     attribute :bar, String
   end
 end
end

MyMedia.valid?({ foo: { bar: 'my-string' }})
# => true

any

Allow for any key. The &block defines the Schema for each value.

param type description
scheme Scheme, NilClass scheme to use if no &block is given
allow_empty: TrueClass, FalsClass if true, empty (no key/value present) is allowed
expected_type: Class, forces the validated value to have this type, defaults to Hash. Use Object if either Hash or Array is fine
&block Block defines the scheme of the value of this attribute

Add a collection named foo, expecting any key with a defined value

class MyMedia
 include MediaTypes::Dsl

 validations do
   collection :foo do
     any do
       attribute :bar, String
     end
   end
 end
end

MyMedia.valid?({ foo: [{ anything: { bar: 'my-string' }, other_thing: { bar: 'other-string' } }] })
# => true

not_strict

Allow for extra keys in the schema/collection even when passing strict: true to #validate!

Allow for extra keys in collection

class MyMedia
 include MediaTypes::Dsl

 validations do
   collection :foo do
     attribute :required, String
     not_strict
   end
 end
end

MyMedia.valid?({ foo: [{ required: 'test', bar: 42 }] })
# => true

collection

Expect a collection such as an array or hash. The &block defines the Schema for each item in that collection.

param type description
key Symbol key of the collection (same as #attribute)
scheme Scheme, NilClass, Class scheme to use if no &block is given or Class of each item in the collection
allow_empty: TrueClass, FalseClass if true, empty (no key/value present) is allowed
expected_type: Class, forces the validated value to have this type, defaults to Array. Use Object if either Array or Hash is fine.
optional: TrueClass, FalseClass if true, key may be absent, defaults to false
&block Block defines the scheme of the value of this attribute

Collection with an array of string

class MyMedia
 include MediaTypes::Dsl

 validations do
   collection :foo, String
 end
end

MyMedia.valid?({ collection: ['foo', 'bar'] })
# => true

Collection with defined scheme

class MyMedia
 include MediaTypes::Dsl

 validations do
   collection :foo do
     attribute :required, String
     attribute :number, Numeric
   end
 end
end

MyMedia.valid?({ foo: [{ required: 'test', number: 42 }, { required: 'other', number: 0 }] })
# => true

link

Expect a link with a required href: String attribute

param type description
key Symbol key of the link (same as #attribute)
allow_nil: TrueClass, FalseClass if true, value may be nil
optional: TrueClass, FalseClass if true, key may be absent, defaults to false
&block Block defines the scheme of the value of this attribute, in addition to the href attribute

Links as defined in HAL, JSON-Links and other specs

class MyMedia
  include MediaTypes::Dsl

  validations do
    link :self
    link :image
  end
end

MyMedia.valid?({ _links: { self: { href: 'https://example.org/s' }, image: { href: 'https://image.org/i' }} })
# => true

Link with extra attributes

class MyMedia
 include MediaTypes::Dsl

 validations do
   link :image do
     attribute :templated, TrueClass
   end
 end
end

MyMedia.valid?({ _links: { image: { href: 'https://image.org/{md5}', templated: true }} })
# => true

Validation

If your type has a validations, you can now use this media type for validation:

Venue.valid?({
  #...
})
# => true if valid, false otherwise

Venue.validate!({
  # /*...*/ 
})
# => raises if it's not valid

If an array is passed, check the scheme for each value, unless the scheme is defined as expecting a hash:

expected_hash = Scheme.new(expected_type: Hash) { attribute(:foo) }
expected_object = Scheme.new { attribute(:foo) } 

expected_hash.valid?({ foo: 'string' })
# => true

expected_hash.valid?([{ foo: 'string' }])
# => false


expected_object.valid?({ foo: 'string' })
# => true

expected_object.valid?([{ foo: 'string' }])
# => true

Formatting for headers

Any media type object can be converted in valid string to be used with Content-Type or Accept:

Venue.mime_type.identifier
# => "application/vnd.mydomain.venue.v2+json"

Venue.mime_type.version(1).identifier
# => "application/vnd.mydomain.venue.v1+json"

Venue.mime_type.to_s(0.2)
# => "application/vnd.mydomain.venue.v2+json; q=0.2"

Venue.mime_type.collection.identifier
# => "application/vnd.mydomain.venue.v2.collection+json"

Venue.mime_type.view('active').identifier
# => "application/vnd.mydomain.venue.v2.active+json"

API

A defined schema has the following functions available:

valid?

Example: Venue.valid?({ foo: 'bar' })

Allows passing in validation options as a second parameter.

validate!

Example: Venue.validate!({ foo: 'bar' })

Allows passing in validation options as a second parameter.

validatable?

Example: Venue.version(42).validatable?

Tests whether the current configuration of the schema has a validation defined.

register

Example: Venue.register

Registers the media type to the registry.

view

Example: Venue.view('create')

Returns a schema validator configured with the specified view.

version

Example: Venue.version(42)

Returns a schema validator configured with the specified version.

suffix

Example: Venue.suffix(:json)

Returns a schema validator configured with the specified suffix.

identifier

Example: Venue.version(2).identifier (returns 'application/vnd.application.venue.v2')

Returns the IANA compatible Media Type Identifier for the configured schema.

available_validations

Example: Venue.available_validations

Returns a list of all the schemas that are defined.

Ensuring Your MediaTypes Work

Overview & Rationale

If the MediaTypes you create enforce a specification you do not expect them to, it will cause problems that will be very difficult to fix, as other code, which utilises your MediaType, would break when you change the specification. This is because the faulty MediaType definition will start to make other code dependent on the specification it defines. For example, consider what would happen if you release a MediaType which defines an attribute foo to be a String, and run a server which defines such a specification. Later, you realise you actually wanted foo to be Numeric. What can you do?

Well, during this time, other people started to write code which conformed to the specification defined by the faulty MediaType. So, it's going to be extremely difficult to revert your mistake. For this reason, it is vital that, when using this library, your MediaTypes define the correct specification.

To this end, we provide you with a few avenues to check whether MediaTypes define the specifications you actually intend by checking examples of JSON you expect to be compliant/non-compliant with the MediaType definitions you write out.

These are as follows:

  1. The library provides two methods (assert_pass and assert_fail), which allow specifying JSON fixtures that are compliant (assert_pass) or non-compliant (assert_fail).
  2. The library provides a way to validate those fixtures against the MediaType specification with the assert_mediatype method.
  3. The library automatically performs a MediaType's checks defined by (1) the first time an object is validated against the MediaType, and throws an error if any of the checks fail.
  4. The library provides a way to run the checks carried out by (3) on load, using the method assert_sane! so that an application will not run if any of the MediaType's checks don't pass.

These four options are examined in detail below.

MediaType Checking in Test Suites

The library provides the assert_mediatype method, which allows running the checks for a particular MediaType within Minitest with assert_pass and assert_fail. If you are using Minitest, you can make assert_mediatype available by calling include MediaTypes::Testing::Assertions in the test class (e.g. Minitest::Runnable):

module Minitest
  class Test < Minitest::Runnable
    include MediaTypes::Testing::Assertions
  end
end

The example below demonstrates how to use assert_pass and assert_fail within a MediaType, and how to use the assert_mediatype method in MiniTest tests to validate them.

class MyMedia
  include MediaTypes::Dsl

  def self.organisation
    'acme'
  end

  use_name 'test'

  validations do
    # Using "any Numeric" this MediaType doesn't care what key names you use.
    # However, it does care that those keys point to a Numeric value.
    any Numeric

    assert_pass '{"foo": 42}'
    assert_pass <<-FIXTURE
    { "foo": 42, "bar": 43 }
    FIXTURE

    # The keyword "any" means there are no required keys, so having no keys should also pass.
    assert_pass '{}'

    # This MediaType should not accept anything other then a Numeric value.
    assert_fail <<-FIXTURE
    { "foo": { "bar": "string" } }
    FIXTURE
    assert_fail '{"foo": {}}'
    assert_fail '{"foo": null}'
    assert_fail '{"foo": [42]}'
  end
end

class MyMediaTest < Minitest::Test
  include MediaTypes::Testing::Assertions

  def test_mediatype_specification
    assert_mediatype MyMedia
  end
end

class MyMediaTest < Minitest::Test
  include MediaTypes::Testing::Assertions

  def test_mediatype_specification
    assert_mediatype MyMedia
  end
end

Testing Without Minitest

If you are using another testing framework, you will not be able to use the assert_mediatype method. Instead, you can test your MediaTypes by using the assert_sane! method (documented below) and rescuing the errors it will throw when it fails. The snippet below shows an example adaptation for MiniTest, which you can use as a guide.

 def test_mediatype(mediatype)
      mediatype.assert_sane!
      assert mediatype.media_type_validations.scheme.asserted_sane?
    rescue MediaTypes::AssertionError => e
      flunk e.message
    end
  end

Validation Checks

The assert_pass and assert_fail methods take a JSON string (as shown below). The first time the validate! method is called on a MediaType, the assertions for that media type are run. This is done as a last line of defence against introducing faulty MediaTypes into your software. Ideally, you want to carry out these checks on load rather than on a running application. This functionality is provided by the assert_sane! method, which can be called on a particular MediaType:

MyMedia.assert_sane!
# true

Intermediate Checks

The fixtures provided to the assert_pass and assert_fail methods are evaluated within the context of the block they are placed in. It's therefore possible to write a test for a (complex) optional attribute, without that test cluttering the fixtures for the entire mediatype.

class MyMedia
  include MediaTypes::Dsl

  expect_string_keys

  def self.organisation
    'acme'
  end

  use_name 'test'

  validations do
    attribute :foo, Hash, optional: true do
      attribute :bar, Numeric

      # This passes, since in this context the "bar" key is required to have a Numeric value. 
      assert_pass '{"bar": 42}'
    end
    attribute :rep, Numeric

    # This passes, since the attribute "foo" is optional.
    assert_pass '{"rep": 42}'
  end
end

Key Type Validation

When interacting with Ruby objects defined by your MediaType, you want to avoid getting nil values, just because the the wrong key type is being used (e.g. obj['foo'] instead of obj[:foo]). To this end, the library provides the ability to specify the expected type of keys in a MediaType; by default symbol keys are expected.

Setting Key Type Expectations

Key type expectations can be set at the module level. Each MediaType within this module will inherit the expectation set by that module.

module Acme
  MediaTypes.expect_string_keys(self)

  # The MyMedia class expects string keys, as inherited from the Acme module.
  class MyMedia
    include MediaTypes::Dsl

    def self.organisation
      'acme'
    end

    use_name 'test'

    validations do
      any Numeric
    end
  end
end

If you validate an object with a different key type than expected, an error will be thrown:

  Acme::MyMedia.validate! { "something": 42 }
  # => passes, because all keys are a string

  Acme::MyMedia.validate! { something: 42 }
  # => throws a ValidationError , because 'something' is a symbol key

Overriding Key Type Expectations

A key type expectation set by a Module can be overridden by calling either expect_symbol_keys or expect_string_keys inside the MediaType class.

module Acme
  MediaTypes.expect_string_keys(self)

  class MyOverridingMedia
    include MediaTypes::Dsl

    def self.organisation
      'acme'
    end

    use_name 'test'
    
    # Expect keys to be symbols
    expect_symbol_keys

    validations do
      any Numeric
    end
  end
end

Now the MediaType throws an error when string keys are used.

  Acme::MyOverridingMedia.validate! { something: 42 }
  # => passes, because all keys are a symbol

  Acme::MyOverridingMedia.validate! { "something": 42 }
  # => throws a ValidationError , because 'something' is a string key

Setting The JSON Parser With The Wrong Key Type

If you parse JSON with the wrong key type, as shown below, the resultant object will fail the validations.

  class MyMedia
    include MediaTypes::Dsl

    def self.organisation
      'acme'
    end

    use_name 'test'
    
    # Expect keys to be symbols
    expect_symbol_keys

    validations do
      any Numeric
    end
  end

  json = JSON.parse('{"foo": {}}', { symbolize_names: false })
  # If MyMedia expects symbol keys
  MyMedia.valid?(json)
  # Returns false

Related

Development

After checking out the repo, run bin/setup to install dependencies. Then, run rake test to run the tests. You can also run bin/console for an interactive prompt that will allow you to experiment.

To install this gem onto your local machine, run bundle exec rake install. To release a new version, update the version number in version.rb, call bundle exec rake release to create a new git tag, push git commits and tags, and push the .gem file to rubygems.org.

Contributing

Bug reports and pull requests are welcome on GitHub at SleeplessByte/media-types-ruby