RDF::N3 reader/writer and reasoner
Notation3 reader/writer for RDF.rb .
Description
RDF::N3 is an Notation3 parser and reasoner for Ruby using the RDF.rb library suite.
Reader inspired from TimBL predictiveParser and Python librdf implementation.
Uses CG Specification
This version tracks the W3C N3 Community Group Specification which has incompatibilities with the Team Submission version. Notably:
 The
@keywords
declaration is removed, and most form of@
keywords (e.g.,@is
,@has
,@true
) are no longer supported.  Terminals adhere closely to their counterparts in Turtle.
 The modifier
<
is introduced as a synonym foris ... of
.  The SPARQL
BASE
andPREFIX
declarations are supported.  Implicit universal variables are defined at the toplevel, rather than in the parent formula of the one in which they are defined.
 Support for explicit existential and universal variables (
@forAll
and@forSome
) has been removed. Quick variables are the standard for universal quantification and blank nodes for existential, but scoping rules are different: Quickvars have toplevel scope, and blank nodes formula scope.
This brings N3 closer to compatibility with Turtle.
Features
RDF::N3 parses Notation3, Turtle and NTriples into statements or quads. It also performs reasoning and serializes to N3.
Install with gem install rdfn3
Limitations
 Support for Variables in Formulae. Existential variables are quantified to RDF::Node instances, Universals to RDF::Query::Variable, with the URI of the variable target used as the variable name.
Usage
Instantiate a reader from a local file:
RDF::N3::Reader.open("etc/foaf.n3") do reader
reader.each_statement do statement
puts statement.inspect
end
end
Define @base
and @prefix
definitions, and use for serialization using :base_uri
an :prefixes
options
Write a graph to a file:
RDF::N3::Writer.open("etc/test.n3") do writer
writer << graph
end
Reasoning
Experimental N3 reasoning is supported. Instantiate a reasoner from a dataset:
RDF::N3::Reasoner.new do reasoner
RDF::N3::Reader.open("etc/foaf.n3") {reader reasoner << reader}
reader.each_statement do statement
puts statement.inspect
end
end
Reasoning is performed by turning a repository containing formula and predicate operators into an executable set of operators (similar to the executable SPARQL Algebra). Reasoning adds statements to the base dataset, marked with :inferred
(e.g. statement.inferred?
). Predicate operators are defined from the following vocabularies.
When dispatching builtin operators, precedence is given to operators whos operands are fully evaluated, followed by those having only variable output operands, followed by those having the fewest operands. Operators are evaluated until either no solutions are derived, or all operators have been completed.
Reasoning is discussed in the Design Issues document.
RDF List vocabulary http://www.w3.org/2000/10/swap/list#

list:append
(See {RDF::N3::Algebra::List::Append}) 
list:first
(See {RDF::N3::Algebra::List::First}) 
list:in
(See {RDF::N3::Algebra::List::In}) 
list:iterate
(See {RDF::N3::Algebra::List::Iterate}) 
list:last
(See {RDF::N3::Algebra::List::Last}) 
list:length
(See {RDF::N3::Algebra::List::Length}) 
list:member
(See {RDF::N3::Algebra::List::Member})
RDF Log vocabulary http://www.w3.org/2000/10/swap/log#

log:conclusion
(See {RDF::N3::Algebra::Log::Conclusion}) 
log:conjunction
(See {RDF::N3::Algebra::Log::Conjunction}) 
log:content
(See {RDF::N3::Algebra::Log::Content}) 
log:dtlit
(See {RDF::N3::Algebra::Log::DtLit}) 
log:equalTo
(See {RDF::N3::Algebra::Log::EqualTo}) 
log:implies
(See {RDF::N3::Algebra::Log::Implies}) 
log:includes
(See {RDF::N3::Algebra::Log::Includes}) 
log:langlit
(See {RDF::N3::Algebra::Log::LangLit}) 
log:n3String
(See {RDF::N3::Algebra::Log::N3String}) 
log:notEqualTo
(See {RDF::N3::Algebra::Log::NotEqualTo}) 
log:notIncludes
(See {RDF::N3::Algebra::Log::NotIncludes}) 
log:outputString
See {RDF::N3::Algebra::Log::OutputString}) 
log:parsedAsN3
(See {RDF::N3::Algebra::Log::ParsedAsN3}) 
log:semantics
(See {RDF::N3::Algebra::Log::Semantics})
RDF Math vocabulary http://www.w3.org/2000/10/swap/math#

math:absoluteValue
(See {RDF::N3::Algebra::Math::AbsoluteValue}) 
math:acos
(See {RDF::N3::Algebra::Math::ACos}) 
math:asin
(See {RDF::N3::Algebra::Math::ASin}) 
math:atan
(See {RDF::N3::Algebra::Math::ATan}) 
math:acosh
(See {RDF::N3::Algebra::Math::ACosH}) 
math:asinh
(See {RDF::N3::Algebra::Math::ASinH}) 
math:atanh
(See {RDF::N3::Algebra::Math::ATanH}) 
math:ceiling
(See {RDF::N3::Algebra::Math::Ceiling}) 
math:cosh
(See {RDF::N3::Algebra::Math::CosH}) 
math:cos
(See {RDF::N3::Algebra::Math::Cos}) 
math:difference
(See {RDF::N3::Algebra::Math::Difference}) 
math:equalTo
(See {RDF::N3::Algebra::Math::EqualTo}) 
math:exponentiation
(See {RDF::N3::Algebra::Math::Exponentiation}) 
math:floor
(See {RDF::N3::Algebra::Math::Floor}) 
math:greaterThan
(See {RDF::N3::Algebra::Math::GreaterThan}) 
math:lessThan
(See {RDF::N3::Algebra::Math::LessThan}) 
math:negation
(See {RDF::N3::Algebra::Math::Negation}) 
math:notEqualTo
(See {RDF::N3::Algebra::Math::NotEqualTo}) 
math:notGreaterThan
(See {RDF::N3::Algebra::Math::NotGreaterThan}) 
math:notLessThan
(See {RDF::N3::Algebra::Math::NotLessThan}) 
math:product
(See {RDF::N3::Algebra::Math::Product}) 
math:quotient
(See {RDF::N3::Algebra::Math::Quotient}) 
math:remainder
(See {RDF::N3::Algebra::Math::Remainder}) 
math:rounded
(See {RDF::N3::Algebra::Math::Rounded}) 
math:sinh
(See {RDF::N3::Algebra::Math::SinH}) 
math:sin
(See {RDF::N3::Algebra::Math::Sin}) 
math:sum
(See {RDF::N3::Algebra::Math::Sum}) 
math:tanh
(See {RDF::N3::Algebra::Math::TanH}) 
math:tan
(See {RDF::N3::Algebra::Math::Tan})
RDF String vocabulary http://www.w3.org/2000/10/swap/str#

string:concatenation
(See {RDF::N3::Algebra::Str::Concatenation}) 
string:contains
(See {RDF::N3::Algebra::Str::Contains}) 
string:containsIgnoringCase
(See {RDF::N3::Algebra::Str::ContainsIgnoringCase}) 
string:endsWith
(See {RDF::N3::Algebra::Str::EndsWith}) 
string:equalIgnoringCase
(See {RDF::N3::Algebra::Str::EqualIgnoringCase}) 
string:format
(See {RDF::N3::Algebra::Str::Format}) 
string:greaterThan
(See {RDF::N3::Algebra::Str::GreaterThan}) 
string:lessThan
(See {RDF::N3::Algebra::Str::LessThan}) 
string:matches
(See {RDF::N3::Algebra::Str::Matches}) 
string:notEqualIgnoringCase
(See {RDF::N3::Algebra::Str::NotEqualIgnoringCase}) 
string:notGreaterThan
(See {RDF::N3::Algebra::Str::NotGreaterThan}) 
string:notLessThan
(See {RDF::N3::Algebra::Str::NotLessThan}) 
string:notMatches
(See {RDF::N3::Algebra::Str::NotMatches}) 
string:replace
(See {RDF::N3::Algebra::Str::Replace}) 
string:scrape
(See {RDF::N3::Algebra::Str::Scrape}) 
string:startsWith
(See {RDF::N3::Algebra::Str::StartsWith})
RDF Time vocabulary http://www.w3.org/2000/10/swap/time#

time:dayOfWeek
(See {RDF::N3::Algebra::Time::DayOfWeek}) 
time:day
(See {RDF::N3::Algebra::Time::Day}) 
time:gmTime
(See {RDF::N3::Algebra::Time::GmTime}) 
time:hour
(See {RDF::N3::Algebra::Time::Hour}) 
time:inSeconds
(See {RDF::N3::Algebra::Time::InSeconds}) 
time:localTime
(See {RDF::N3::Algebra::Time::LocalTime}) 
time:minute
(See {RDF::N3::Algebra::Time::Minute}) 
time:month
(See {RDF::N3::Algebra::Time::Month}) 
time:second
(See {RDF::N3::Algebra::Time::Second}) 
time:timeZone
(See {RDF::N3::Algebra::Time::Timezone}) 
time:year
(See {RDF::N3::Algebra::Time::Year})
Parser features
Chaining with iriPropertyList
Adds a proposed syntactic extension for subject embedding similar to a blankNodePropertyList
. An iriPropertyList
begins with [ id _id_
, instead of a simple [
. This sets id as the subject to be used for the following propertyList
. This provides a mechanisms similar to JSONLD Embedding.
@prefix dc: <http://purl.org/dc/terms/>.
@prefix : <http://example.org/nd#>.
:SummerReadingList a :OrderedListOfBooks ;
:toRead (
[id :mobyDick dc:title "Moby Dick"; :setting :WhaleIntestines ]
[
id :jaws
dc:title "Jaws";
:setting :Beach
]
).
Note that the id used in the iriPropertyList
is not delimited by a ;
Formulae / Quoted Graphs
N3 Formulae are introduced with the { statementlist }
syntax. A given formula is assigned an RDF::Node
instance, which is also used as the graph_name for RDF::Statement
instances provided to RDF::N3::Reader#each_statement
. For example, the following N3 generates the associated statements:
@prefix x: <http://example.org/xns/#> .
@prefix log: <http://www.w3.org/2000/10/swap/log#> .
@prefix dc: <http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1/#> .
{ [ x:firstname "Ora" ] dc:wrote [ dc:title "Moby Dick" ] } a log:falsehood .
when turned into an RDF Repository results in the following quads
_:form <http://www.w3.org/1999/02/22rdfsyntaxns#type> <http://www.w3.org/2000/10/swap/log#falsehood> .
_:moby <http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1/#title> "Moby Dick" _:form .
_:ora <http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1/#wrote> _:moby _:form .
_:ora <http://example.org/xns/#firstname> "Ora" _:form .
Reasoning uses a Notation3 Algebra, similar to SPARQL SExpressions. This implementation considers formulae to be patterns, which may be asserted on statements made in the default graph, possibly loaded from a separate file. The logical relationships are reduced to algebraic operators.
Variables
The latest version of N3 supports only quickVars (e.g., ?x
). THe former explicit @forAll
and @forSome
of been removed.
Existential variables are replaced with an allocated RDF::Node
instance.
Note that the behavior of both existential and universal variables is not entirely in keeping with the Team Submission, and neither work quite like SPARQL variables. When used in the antecedent part of an implication, universal variables should behave much like SPARQL variables. This area is subject to a fair amount of change.
 Variables, themselves, cannot be part of a solution, which limits the ability to generate updated rules for reasoning.
 Both Existentials and Universals are treated as simple variables, and there is really no preference given based on the order in which they are introduced.
Query
Formulae are typically used to query the knowledgebase, which is set from the baseformula/default graph. A formula is composed of both constant statements, and variable statements. When running as a query, such as for the antecedent formula in log:implies
, statements including either explicit variables or blank nodes are treated as query patterns and are used to query the knowledge base to create a solution set, which is used either prove the formula correct, or create bindings passed to the consequent formula.
Blank nodes associated with rdf:List statements used as part of a builtin are made nondistinguished existential variables, and patters containing these variables become optional. If they are not bound as part of the query, the implicitly are bound as the original blank nodes defined within the formula, which allows for both constant list arguments, list arguments that contain variables, or arguments which are variables expanding to lists.
Dependencies
Documentation
Full documentation available on RubyDoc.info
Principle Classes
 {RDF::N3}
 {RDF::N3::Format}
 {RDF::N3::Reader}
 {RDF::N3::Reasoner}
 {RDF::N3::Writer}
 {RDF::N3::Algebra}
 {RDF::N3::Algebra::Formula}
Additional vocabularies
 {RDF::N3::Rei}
 {RDF::N3::Crypto}
 {RDF::N3::Math}
 {RDF::N3::Time}
Change Log
Resources
 RDF.rb
 Distiller
 Documentation
 History
 Notation3
 Team Submission
 N3 Primer
 N3 Reification
 Turtle
 W3C SWAP Test suite
 W3C Turtle Test suite
 NTriples
Author
Contributing
This repository uses Git Flow to mange development and release activity. All submissions must be on a feature branch based on the develop branch to ease staging and integration.
 Do your best to adhere to the existing coding conventions and idioms.
 Don't use hard tabs, and don't leave trailing whitespace on any line.
 Do document every method you add using YARD annotations. Read the tutorial or just look at the existing code for examples.
 Don't touch the
.gemspec
,VERSION
orAUTHORS
files. If you need to change them, do so on your private branch only.  Do feel free to add yourself to the
CREDITS
file and the corresponding list in the theREADME
. Alphabetical order applies.  Do note that in order for us to merge any nontrivial changes (as a rule of thumb, additions larger than about 15 lines of code), we need an explicit public domain dedication on record from you, which you will be asked to agree to on the first commit to a repo within the organization. Note that the agreement applies to all repos in the Ruby RDF organization.
License
This is free and unencumbered public domain software. For more information, see https://unlicense.org/ or the accompanying {file:UNLICENSE} file.