Project

safe_type

0.09
No release in over 3 years
Low commit activity in last 3 years
Type Coercion & Type Enhancement
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 Dependencies

Development

~> 1.16
~> 12.3
~> 3.8
 Project Readme

safe_type

Gem Version Build Status Maintainability Test Coverage

While working with environment variables, routing parameters, network responses, or other Hash-like objects that require parsing, we often need type coercion to assure expected behaviors.

safe_type provides an intuitive type coercion interface and type enhancement.

Installation

We can install safe_type using gem install:

gem install safe_type

Or we can add it as a dependency in the Gemfile and run bundle install:

gem 'safe_type'

Use Cases

Environment Variables

require 'safe_type/mixin/hash' # symbolize_keys

ENV["DISABLE_TASKS"] = "true"
ENV["API_KEY"] = ""
ENV["BUILD_NUM"] = "123"
SAFE_ENV = SafeType::coerce(
  ENV,
  {
    "DISABLE_TASKS" => SafeType::Boolean.default(false),
    "API_KEY" => SafeType::String.default("SECRET"),
    "BUILD_NUM" => SafeType::Integer.strict,
  }
).symbolize_keys

SAFE_ENV[:DISABLE_TASKS]    # => true
SAFE_ENV[:API_KEY]          # => SECRET
SAFE_ENV[:BUILD_NUM]        # => 123

Routing Parameters

class FallSemesterStartDate < SafeType::Date
  # implement `is_valid?` method
end

current_year = Date.today.year
params = {
  "course_id" => "101",
  "start_date" => "#{current_year}-10-01"
}

rules = {
  "course_id" => SafeType::Integer.strict,
  "start_date" => FallSemester.strict
}

SafeType::coerce!(params, rules)

params["course_id"]       # => 101
params["start_date"]      # => <Date: 2018-10-01 ((2458393j,0s,0n),+0s,2299161j)>

Ruby Hashes

json = {
  "numbers" => [
    ["10", "100", "1000"],
    ["20", "200", "2000"],
    ["30", "300", "3000"]
  ],
  "info" => [
    {
      "type" => "dog",
      "pets_age" => "45",
      "num_of_siblings" => "3"
    },
    {
      "type" => "cat",
      "pets_age" => "44",
      "num_of_siblings" => "4"
    },
    {
      "type" => "fish",
      "pets_age" => "46",
      "num_of_siblings" => "5"
    }
  ]
}

SafeType::coerce!(json, {
  "numbers" => [
    [SafeType::Integer.strict, SafeType::String.strict],
    [SafeType::Integer.strict],
    [SafeType::String.strict]
  ],
  "info" => [
    {
      "type" => SafeType::String.strict,
      "pets_age" => SafeType::Integer.strict,
    }
  ]
})

# ANSWER
answer = {
  "numbers" => [
    [10, "100", 1000],
    [20, 200, 2000],
    ["30", "300", "3000"]
  ],
  "info" => [
    {
      "type" => "dog",
      "pets_age" => 45,
      "num_of_siblings" => "3"
    },
    {
      "type" => "cat",
      "pets_age" => 44,
      "num_of_siblings" => "4"
    },
    {
      "type" => "fish",
      "pets_age" => 46,
      "num_of_siblings" => "5"
    }
  ]
}

Network Responses

class ResponseType; end

class Response < SafeType::Rule
  def initialize(type: ResponseType, default: "404")
    super
  end

  def before(uri)
    # make request
    return ResponseType.new 
  end
end

Response.coerce("https://API_URI")   # => #<ResponseType:0x000056005b3e7518>

Overview

A Rule describes a single transformation pipeline. It's the core of this gem.

class Rule
  def initialize(type:, default: nil, required: false)

The parameters are

  • the type to transform into
  • the default value when the result is nil
  • required indicates whether empty values are allowed

strict vs default

The primitive types in SafeType provide default and strict mode, which are

  • SafeType::Boolean
  • SafeType::Date
  • SafeType::DateTime
  • SafeType::Float
  • SafeType::Integer
  • SafeType::String
  • SafeType::Symbol
  • SafeType::Time

Under the hood, they are all just Rule classes with parameters:

  • default: a rule with default value specified
  • strict: a rule with required: true, so no empty values are allowed, or it throws EmptyValueError

Apply the Rules

As we've seen in the use cases, we can call coerce to apply a set of SafeType::Rule classes. Rule classes can be bundled together as elements in an array or values in a hash.

coerce vs coerce!

  • SafeType::coerce returns a new object, corresponding to the rules. The unspecified fields will not be included in the new object.
  • SafeType::coerce! coerces the object in place. The unspecified fields will not be modified. Note SafeType::coerce! cannot be used on a simple object, otherwise it will raise SafeType::InvalidRuleError.

To apply the rule on a simple object, we can call the coerce method as well.

SafeType::Integer.default.coerce("1")    # => 1
SafeType::Integer.coerce("1")            # => 1

Note those two examples are equivalent:

SafeType::coerce(ENV["PORT"], SafeType::Integer.default(3000))
SafeType::Integer.default(3000).coerce(ENV["PORT"])

For the SafeType primitive types, applying the rule on the class itself will use the default rule.

Customized Types

We can inherit from a SafeType::Rule to create a customized type. We can override following methods if needed:

  • Override initialize to change the default values, types, or add more attributes.
  • Override before to update the input before convert. This method should take the input and return it after processing.
  • Override is_valid? to check the value after convert. This method should take the input and return true or false.
  • Override after to update the input after validate. This method should take the input and return it after processing.
  • Override handle_exceptions to change the behavior of exceptions handling (e.g: send to the logger, or no exception)
  • Override default or strict to modify the default and strict rule.

Prior Art

safe_type pulls heavy inspiration from dry-types and rails_param. The interface in safe_type looks similar to the interface in dry-types, however, safe_type supports some additional features such as in-place coercion using the Ruby bang method interface and the ability to define schemas using Ruby hashes and arrays. safe_type also borrows some concepts from rails_param, but with some fundamental differences such as safe_type not relying on Rails and safe_type not having a focus on only typing Rails controller parameters. The goal of safe_type is to provide a good tradeoff between complexity and flexibility by enabling type checking through a clean and easy-to-use interface. safe_type should be useful when working with any string or hash where the values could be ambiguously typed, such as ENV variables, rails params, or network responses..

License

The safe_type project is licensed and available open source under the terms of the MIT license.