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A long-lived project that still receives updates
Crawl web sites easily using ruby recipes, with caching and nokogiri.
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Welcome to Sinew

Sinew is a Ruby library for collecting data from web sites (scraping). Though small, this project is the culmination of years of effort based on crawling systems built at several different companies. Sinew has been used to crawl millions of websites.

Key Features

  • Robust crawling with the Faraday HTTP client
  • Aggressive caching with httpdisk
  • Easy parsing with HTML cleanup, Nokogiri, JSON, etc.
  • CSV generation for crawled data

Installation

# install gem
$ gem install sinew

# or add to your Gemfile:
gem 'sinew'

Table of Contents

  • Sinew 4
  • Quick Example
  • How it Works
  • Reference
  • Hints
  • Limitations
  • Changelog
  • License

Sinew 4 (June 2021)

Breaking change

We are pleased to announce the release of Sinew 4. The Sinew DSL exposes a single sinew method in lieu of the many methods exposed in Sinew 3. Because of this single entry point, Sinew is now much easier to embed in other applications. Also, each Sinew 4 request returns a full Response object to faciliate parallelism.

Sinew uses the Faraday HTTP client with the httpdisk middleware for aggressive caching of responses.

Quick Example

Here's an example for collecting the links from httpbingo.org. Paste this into a file called sample.sinew and run sinew sample.sinew. It will create a sample.csv file containing the href and text for each link:

# get the url
response = sinew.get "https://httpbingo.org"

# use nokogiri to collect links
response.noko.css("ul li a").each do |a|
  row = { }
  row[:url] = a[:href]
  row[:title] = a.text

  # append a row to the csv
  sinew.csv_emit(row)
end

How it Works

There are three main features provided by Sinew.

Recipes

Sinew uses recipe files to crawl web sites. Recipes have the .sinew extension, but they are plain old Ruby. Here's a trivial example that calls get to make an HTTP GET request:

response = sinew.get "https://www.google.com/search?q=darwin"
response = sinew.get "https://www.google.com/search", q: "charles darwin"

Once you've done a get, you can access the document in a few different formats. In general, it's easiest to use noko to automatically parse and interact with HTML results. If Nokogiri isn't appropriate, fall back to regular expressions run against body or html. Use json if you are expecting a JSON response.

response = sinew.get "https://www.google.com/search?q=darwin"

# pull out the links with nokogiri
links = response.noko.css("a").map { _1[:href] }
puts links.inspect

# or, use a regex
links = response.html[/<a[^>]+href="([^"]+)/, 1]
puts links.inspect

CSV Output

Recipes output CSV files. To continue the example above:

response = sinew.get "https://www.google.com/search?q=darwin"
response.noko.css("a").each do |i|
  row = { }
  row[:href] = i[:href]
  row[:text] = i.text
  sinew.csv_emit row
end

Sinew creates a CSV file with the same name as the recipe, and csv_emit(hash) appends a row. The values of your hash are cleaned up and converted to strings:

  1. Nokogiri nodes are converted to text
  2. Arrays are joined with "|", so you can separate them later
  3. HTML tags, entities and non-ascii chars are removed
  4. Whitespace is squished

Caching

Sinew uses httpdisk to aggressively cache all HTTP responses to disk in ~/.sinew. Error responses are cached as well. Each URL will be hit exactly once, and requests are rate limited to one per second. Sinew tries to be polite.

Sinew never deletes files from the cache - that's up to you! Sinew has various command line options to refresh the cache. See --expires, --force and --force-errors.

Because all requests are cached, you can run Sinew repeatedly with confidence. Run it over and over again while you work on your recipe.

Running Sinew

The sinew command line has many useful options. You will be using this command many times as you iterate on your recipe:

$ bin/sinew --help
Usage: sinew [options] [recipe]
    -l, --limit     quit after emitting this many rows
    --proxy         use host[:port] as HTTP proxy
    --timeout       maximum time allowed for the transfer
    -s, --silent    suppress some output
    -v, --verbose   dump emitted rows while running
From httpdisk:
    --dir           set custom cache directory
    --expires       when to expire cached requests (ex: 1h, 2d, 3w)
    --force         don't read anything from cache (but still write)
    --force-errors  don't read errors from cache (but still write)

Sinew also has many runtime options that can be set by in your recipe. For example:

sinew.options[:headers] = { 'User-Agent' => 'xyz' }

...

Here is the list of available options for Sinew:

  • headers - default HTTP headers to use on every request
  • ignore_params - ignore these query params when generating httpdisk cache keys
  • insecure - ignore SSL errors
  • params - default query parameters to use on every request
  • rate_limit - minimum time between network requests
  • retries - number of times to retry each failed request
  • url_prefix - deafult URL base to use on every request

Reference

Making HTTP requests

  • sinew.get(url, params = nil, headers = nil) - fetch a url with GET
  • sinew.post(url, body = nil, headers = nil) - fetch a url with POST, using form as the URL encoded POST body.
  • sinew.post_json(url, body = nil, headers = nil) - fetch a url with POST, using json as the POST body.

Parsing the response

Each request method returns a Sinew::Response. The response has several helpers to make parsing easier:

  • body - the raw body
  • html - like body, but with a handful of HTML-specific whitespace cleanups
  • noko - parse as HTML and return a Nokogiri document
  • xml - parse as XML and return a Nokogiri document
  • json - parse as JSON, with symbolized keys
  • mash - parse as JSON and return a Hashie::Mash
  • url - the url of the request. If the request goes through a redirect, url will reflect the final url.

Writing CSV

  • sinew.csv_header(columns) - specify the columns for CSV output. If you don't call this, Sinew will use the keys from the first call to sinew.csv_emit.
  • sinew.csv_emit(hash) - append a row to the CSV file

Advanced: Cache

Sinew has some advanced helpers for checking the httpdisk cache. For the following methods, body hashes default to form body type.

  • sinew.cached?(method, url, params = nil, body = nil) - check if request is cached
  • sinew.uncache(method, url, params = nil, body = nil) - remove cache file, if any
  • sinew.status(method, url, params = nil, body = nil) - get httpdisk status

Plus some caching helpers in Sinew::Response:

  • diskpath - the location on disk for the cached httpdisk response
  • uncache - remove cache file for this response

Hints

Writing Sinew recipes is fun and easy. The builtin caching means you can iterate quickly, since you won't have to re-fetch the data. Here are some hints for writing idiomatic recipes:

  • Sinew doesn't (yet) check robots.txt - please check it manually.
  • Prefer Nokogiri over regular expressions wherever possible. Learn CSS selectors.
  • In Chrome, $ in the console is your friend.
  • Fallback to regular expressions if you're desperate. Depending on the site, use either body or html. html is probably your best bet. body is good for crawling Javascript, but it's fragile if the site changes.
  • Learn to love String#[regexp], which is an obscure operator but incredibly handy for Sinew.
  • Laziness is useful. Keep your CSS selectors and regular expressions simple, so maybe they'll work again the next time you need to crawl a site.
  • Don't be afraid to mix CSS selectors, regular expressions, and Ruby:
noko.css("table")[4].css("td").select do
  _1[:width].to_i > 80
end.map(&:text)
  • Debug your recipes using plain old puts, or better yet use ap from amazing_print.
  • Run sinew -v to get a report on every csv_emit. Very handy.
  • Add the CSV files to your git repo. That way you can version them and get diffs!

Limitations

  • Caching is based on URL, so use caution with cookies and other forms of authentication
  • Almost no support for international (non-english) characters

Changelog

4.0.0 (July 2021)

  • Rewritten to use simpler DSL
  • Upgraded to httpdisk 0.5 to take advantage of the new encoding support

3.0.0 (May 2021)

  • Major rewrite of network and caching layer. See above.
  • Use Faraday HTTP client with sinew middleware for caching.
  • Supports multiple proxies (--proxy host1,host2,...)

2.0.4 (May 2018)

  • Handle and cache more errors (too many redirects, connection failures, etc.)
  • Support for adding uri.scheme in generate_cache_key
  • Added status code, a peer to uri, raw, etc.

2.0.3 (May 2018)

  • & now normalizes to & (not and)

2.0.2 (May 2018)

  • Support for --limit, --proxy and the xml variable
  • Dedup - warn and ignore if row[:url] has already been emitted
  • Auto gunzip if contents are compressed

2.0.1 (May 2018)

  • Support for legacy cached head files from Sinew 1

2.0.0 (May 2018)

  • Complete rewrite. See above.

1.0.3 (June 2012)

...

License

This extension is licensed under the MIT License.