Run Selenium tests more easily with automatic installation and updates for all supported webdrivers.
Update: Selenium Manager
Selenium is working to make all 3rd party driver managers obsolete with a single solution that works in all languages. The new Selenium Manager is still in beta, but if you are using Selenium 4.6+ you may not need this gem.
The current logic (as of Selenium 4.8) determines driver path in this order:
- Specified in a
Serviceconstructor provided as an argument in the
- Specified by
driver_pathattribute accessor for the
Serviceclass (which is what this gem does)
- Located in a directory included in the
- Located in the directory Selenium Manager has downloaded it to
If you don't have any drivers in locations on
PATH, you can try not requiring this gem and see if you still need it.
Please provide feedback or raise issues with Selenium Project
webdrivers downloads drivers and directs Selenium to use them. Currently supports:
Works on macOS, Linux, Windows, and Windows Subsystem for Linux (WSL) v1 and v2. And do see the browser and OS specific notes at the bottom.
In your Gemfile:
gem 'webdrivers', '~> 5.0', require: false
In your project:
The drivers will now be automatically downloaded or updated when you launch a browser through Selenium.
If you want webdrivers to only manage specific drivers you can specify one or more as follows:
require 'webdrivers/chromedriver' require 'webdrivers/geckodriver' require 'webdrivers/iedriver' require 'webdrivers/edgedriver'
The default download location is
~/.webdrivers directory, and this is configurable:
Webdrivers.install_dir = '/webdrivers/install/dir'
Alternatively, you can define the path via the
If you would like to use a specific (older or beta) version, you can specify it for each driver. Otherwise, the latest (stable) driver will be downloaded and passed to Selenium.
# Chrome Webdrivers::Chromedriver.required_version = '2.46' # Firefox Webdrivers::Geckodriver.required_version = '0.23.0' # Internet Explorer Webdrivers::IEdriver.required_version = '3.14.0' # Edge (Chromium) Webdrivers::Edgedriver.required_version = '22.214.171.124'
You can explicitly trigger the update in your code, but this will happen automatically when the driver is initialized:
You can set Webdrivers to only look for updates if the previous check was longer ago than a specified number of seconds.
Webdrivers.cache_time = 86_400 # Default: 86,400 Seconds (24 hours)
Alternatively, you can define this value via the
variable. Only set one to avoid confusion.
Special exception for chromedriver and msedgedriver
Cache time will be respected as long as a driver binary exists and the major.minor.build versions of
the browser and the driver match. For example, if you update Chrome or Edge to v76.0.123 and its driver is
still at v76.0.100,
webdrivers will ignore the cache time and update the driver to make sure you're
using a compatible build version.
If there is a proxy between you and the Internet then you will need to configure
the gem to use the proxy. You can do this by calling the
Webdrivers.configure do |config| config.proxy_addr = 'myproxy_address.com' config.proxy_port = '8080' config.proxy_user = 'username' config.proxy_pass = 'password' end
If you are getting an error like this (especially common on Windows):
SSL_connect returned=1 errno=0 state=SSLv3 read server certificate B: certificate verify failed
Add the following to your Gemfile:
Add the following to your code:
Other solutions are documented on the RubyGems website.
Each driver has its own set of
rake tasks (with
Railtie support) that
you can call once before executing the tests. These are especially
useful if you're running tests in parallel and want to avoid performing
an update check per thread.
If you are using Rails default configuration the
webdrivers gem will only be loaded in the test group
so you will need to specify the test environment when using the tasks:
RAILS_ENV=test rails webdrivers:chromedriver:update
If you are not using Rails, you'll need to load them into your Rakefile like this:
require 'webdrivers' load 'webdrivers/Rakefile'
The full list of available tasks is:
$ bundle exec rake -T rake webdrivers:chromedriver:remove # Force remove chromedriver rake webdrivers:chromedriver:update[version] # Remove and download updated chromedriver if necessary rake webdrivers:chromedriver:version # Print current chromedriver version rake webdrivers:edgedriver:remove # Force remove msedgedriver rake webdrivers:edgedriver:update[version] # Remove and download updated msedgedriver if necessary rake webdrivers:edgedriver:version # Print current msedgedriver version rake webdrivers:geckodriver:remove # Force remove geckodriver rake webdrivers:geckodriver:update[version] # Remove and download updated geckodriver if necessary rake webdrivers:geckodriver:version # Print current geckodriver version rake webdrivers:iedriver:remove # Force remove IEDriverServer rake webdrivers:iedriver:update[version] # Remove and download updated IEDriverServer if necessary rake webdrivers:iedriver:version # Print current IEDriverServer version
These tasks respect the
WD_EDGE_CHROME_PATH environment variables, which can also be passed
$ bundle exec rake webdrivers:chromedriver:update[2.46] webdrivers:geckodriver:update[0.24.0] WD_CACHE_TIME=86_400 WD_INSTALL_DIR='my_dir' 2019-05-20 19:03:01 INFO Webdrivers Updated to chromedriver 2.46.628388 2019-05-20 19:03:04 INFO Webdrivers Updated to geckodriver 0.24.0
Please note that these tasks do not use any of the configurations from your
project (code) and only respect the
ENV variables and the version (optional)
passed to the
The logging level can be configured for debugging purpose:
Webdrivers.logger.level = :DEBUG
Browser & OS Specific Notes
The version of
chromedriver will depend on the version of Chrome you are using it with:
- For versions >= 70, the downloaded version of
chromedriverwill match the installed version of Google Chrome. More information here.
- For versions <= 69,
chromedriverversion 2.41 will be downloaded.
- For beta versions, you'll have to require the beta version of
The gem looks for the Chrome/Chromium version that
chromedriver will use by default.
You can override this behavior by providing a path to the browser binary you want to use:
Selenium::WebDriver::Chrome.path = '/chromium/install/path/to/binary'
Alternatively, you can define the path via the
This is also required if Google Chrome is not installed in its default location.
Chrome on Heroku
Follow the specific instructions here if you're using
Microsoft Edge (Chromium)
Microsoft Edge (Chromium) support was added in v4.1.0. Notes from the Chrome/Chromium section apply to this browser as well.
Please note that
While WSLv1 is not designed to run headful applications like Chrome, it can run exes; as such when found to be running
webdrivers will use Chrome on the Windows filesystem.
It's recommended that you install the new PowerShell (PS7) to avoid a known issue with the console font being changed when calling the old PowerShell (PS5).
Webdrivers will detect WSLv2 as running on Linux and use Chrome on the Linux filesystem.
WSLv2 doesn't support connecting to host ports out of the box, so it isn't possible to connect to Chromedriver on Windows without extra configurations, see: microsoft/WSL#4619. The simplest way to use Chromedriver with WSLv2 is to run Chrome headless on Linux.
Chrome and Edge on Apple M1 (
If you're switching from Intel to M1, you'll have to manually delete the existing Intel (
mac64) driver before the
arm64) build can be downloaded. Otherwise, you'll get an error:
Bad CPU type in executable - ~/.webdrivers/chromedriver (Errno::E086)
Please see the wiki for solutions to commonly reported issues.
Join us in the
#webdrivers-gem channel on Slack
if you have any questions.
The gem is available as open source under the terms of the MIT License, see LICENSE.txt for full details and copyright.
Bug reports and pull requests are welcome on GitHub.
bundle exec rake and squash the commits in your PRs.