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Methods for defining type-checked arrays and attributes
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The strongtyping gem is a Ruby library that provides type checking and method overloading.
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The code to check for the iPhone user agent is from http://developer.apple.com. This doesn't have any dependencies. - in app/controllers/application.rb require 'is_it_iphone' class ApplicationController < ActionController::Base include IsItIPhone before_filter :adjust_format_for_iphone # Always show iPhone views end You will have these functions: iphone_user_agent? Returns true if the user agent is an iPhone. (as spec'ed on http://developer.apple.com) iphone_request? Returns true if the request came from an iPhone. Override being an iPhone with ?format=xxxx in the URL. adjust_format_for_iphone Call when you want to show iPhone views to iPhone users. Note: It is recommended by Apple that you default to showing your "normal" html page to iPhone users and allow them to choose if they want an iPhone version. With Rails 2.0, you can use its multiview capabilities by simply adding this to your app: - in config/initializers/mime_types.rb Mime::Type.register_alias "text/html", :iphone Then, just create your views using suffices of iphone.erb instead of html.erb: index.iphone.erb show.iphone.erb etc. Note: you will probably want to use a Web library specific for iPhone applications. FWIW, I use Da shcode (in the iPhone SDK) to write and debug the iPhone application and then integrate it with my Rails project.
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RubyLess is an interpreter for "safe ruby". The idea is to transform some "unsafe" ruby code into safe, type checked ruby, eventually rewriting some variables or methods.
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Allows checking of reply content type with request accept types. Also allows contracting of downstream apps to supplying a single type.
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$Id: README.txt 204 2010-11-30 02:20:04Z pwilkins $ sm-transcript reads results of SLS processing and produces transcripts for the SpokenMedia browser. For each file in the source folder whose extension matches the source type, a file of destination type is created in the destination folder. All of these parameters have default values. Note: Examples of the commands you enter in the terminal are for *nix. The command prompt in the examples is: felix$ <command line> If you are a Windows user, make the usual adjustments. Requirements: sm-transcript is written in Ruby and packaged as a RubyGem. Since Ruby is not a compiled language, you will need to have Ruby installed on your machine to run sm-transcript. You can determine if Ruby is installed by typing "ruby -v" at a terminal prompt. It should return the version of Ruby that is installed. If Ruby is not installed on your machine, navigate to http://www.ruby-lang.org/ and follow the installation instructions. sm-transcript was developed using Ruby 1.8. Other Ruby versions have not been tested as of this release. Installation: You can get sm-transcript as either a RubyGem or as source from svn. The preferred way to install this package is as a Rubygem. You can download and install the gem with this command: felix$ sudo gem install [--verbose] sm-transcript This command downloads the most recent version of the gem from rubygems.org and makes it active. Previous versions of the gem remain installed, but are deactivated. You must use "sudo" to properly install the gem. If you execute "gem install" (omitting the "sudo") the gem is installed in your home gem repository and it isn't in your path without additional configuration. Note: You need sudo privileges to run the command as written. If you can't sudo, then you can install it locally and will need some additional configuration. Contact me (or your local Ruby wizard) for assistance. The executable is now in your path. You can cleanly uninstall the gem with this command: felix$ sudo gem uninstall sm-transcript If you have access to our svn repository, you are welcome to check out the code. Be warned that the trunk tip is not necessarily stable. It changes frequently as enhancements (and bug fixes) are added. (note that the 'smb_transcript' in the command line below is not a typo.) svn co svn+ssh://svn.mit.edu/oeit-tsa/SMB/smb_transcript/trunk sm_transcript build the gem by running this command from the directory you installed the source. This is what it looks like on my machine: felix$ rake gem The gem will be built and put in ./pkg You can now use the gem installation instructions above. Using the App: Run with no command line parameters, the app reads *.wrd files out of ./results and writes *.t1.html files to ./transcripts. These directories are relative to where sm_transcript is called. Note: destination files are overwritten without a warning prompt. If you want to preserve an existing output file, rename it before running the app again. For example, run the app by navigating to the bin folder and enter projects/sm_transcript/bin felix$ sm_transcript This command run from this folder will read *.wrd files from bin/results and write *-t1.html to bin/transcripts. Usage: sm_transcript [options] --srcdir PATH Read files from this folder (Default: ./results) --destdir PATH Write files to this folder (Default: ./transcripts) --srctype wrd | seg | txt | ttml | srt Kind of file to process (Default: wrd) --desttype html | ttml | datajs | json Kind of file to output (Default: html) -h, --help Show this message There is a serious gotch'a in specifying the srctype parameter: it must match the case of the file extension that you're processing. This means that if the srt files that you are processing have the extension .SRT, then you must specify the srctype as "SRT". Pretty lame, I know. I will update the gem with a fix shortly. My apologies until then. Troubleshooting: sm-transcript requires additional gems to operate. The RubyGem installation should install dependencies automatically, but when it doesn't, you get an error that includes ... no such file to load -- builder (LoadError) in the first few lines when you run sm-transcript, the problem is a missing dependent gem. (the error above indicates that the Builder gem is missing.) Try installing the missing gem. For the error above, the command looks like this on my computer: felix$ sudo gem install builder See "Required Gems" below for more information. A warning message such as: "WARNING: Nokogiri was built against LibXML version 2.7.6, but has dynamically loaded 2.7.7"" may be safely ignored. If you continue to have trouble, feel free to contact me. Upgrading: You can easily upgrade by simply executing the same command you used to install the gem. Running install again will add the newer version and make it active. By default the most recent version is used, but older versions are still available, simply inactive. If are using svn, you should already know what to do. Required Gems: builder - create structured data, such as XML extensions - added for the 'require_relative' command. (To get this command in Ruby 1.8 you need to install this gem, for Ruby 1.9 the command is already part of the core.) htmlentities - html parsing json - create JSON structured data nokogiri - xml parsing library optparse - option parsing of command line ostruct - open data structures ppcommand - pp is a pretty printer. It is used only for debugging rake - make for Ruby rubygems - support for gems (shouldn't be needed for Ruby 1.9) shoulda - enhancement for Test::Unit This command installs gems on OSX and Linux: felix$ sudo gem install <gem name> I recommend running the following command to update to latest version of rubygems before loading new gems. felix$ sudo gem update --system Unit Tests: You may run all unit tests by navigating to the test folder and running rake with no parameters (the default rake task runs all tests). On my computer, it looks like this: projects/sm_transcript/test felix$ rake Release Notes: Initial Version - runs under Ruby 1.8.x. version 0.0.4 - fixes bug when processing .WRD files with CRLF line endings. version 0.0.5 - removed due to posting error version 0.0.6 - added srctype of ttml and desttype of json, fixed bug where beginning time of word was actually for previous word. version 0.0.7 - added srt as srctype version 0.0.8 - fixed bug that dropped last phrase from transcripts version 1.0.0 - declared this version 1.0.0 to conform more closely with gem numbering conventions. All tests run successfully. To Do: - specify individual files for processing rather than folders - fix bug in srt processing: can't read Creole srt content. - allow user to modify the "t1" file extension for addition languages of the same transcript. - update code to run under Ruby 1.9
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== PintosCheck -- Auto Pintos Checker to Save the Day == == Functionalities == The functionality of this simple script is to download pintos homework assignments from the mail inbox and then run through all the desired tests and finally generate reports in plain text or html formats, all automatically. == Requirements For Running PintosCheck == Since all the scripts are written in ruby, PintosCheck require ruby installed on the system. I use ruby 1.8.7 for development, but ruby 1.9.* versions are expected to function as well. However, ruby 1.8.6 and lower versions are not supported. For information of downloading and installing ruby, see http://www.ruby-lang.org/en/downloads/. In addition to ruby itself, RubyGems 1.3.* is also required because it hosts the installation source for this project and almost all other ruby projects as well. To download or update RubyGems, please go to http://gemcutter.org/pages/download for more information. == Installation == Once you have all the requirements on your system, it's really easy to install PintosCheck. In the UNIX shell or Windows command line environment, type the following command(sudo if needed): gem install pintoscheck --include-dependencies Go grab a cup of coffee, and PintosCheck will automatically download and install itself onto the system. To check the installation, type 'ptschk --version', and if something like 'PintosCheck 0.1.0' pops up then you're green to go! == Finally, how do I check my students' pintos homework? == This project ships with a 'ptschk' command tool. This tool needs a task configuration file to actually do everything. The configuration file is in YAML format, which is basically a recursive key-value pair representation. If you're using PintosCheck for the first time, there's a very nice command line option to generate the skeleton for you. Just run 'ptschk init my_first_task.config' and a file named 'my_first_task.config' will be generated for you. Inside this file there is a set of the minimal options for the task to run properly, and you just have to fill in what you need. After you set up your configuration file, run 'ptschk run my_first_task.config' and the tasks will kick off immediately, and after a while the report will be generated. A detailed configuration options for advanced task setup will be available in production release of this project.
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rubber-c-binder allows a rubyish means of generating bindings for C libraries, including (but not limited to) GObject based libraries. It allows C code to be written in the context of a ruby style class/method layout and eases type checking and conversion between Ruby & C datatypes.
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a Rails gem that allows you to validate a URL entered in a form. It validates if the URL exists by hitting it with a HEAD request. The improved version includes retries for common patterns when the head request is refused before giving a failure notice. It also looks up a SITE_URL constant to the user agent in the headers. Also has the option to also check that the URL returns content of a specified type.
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Flags is a framework for Ruby which allows the definition of command-line flags, which are parsed in and can be accessed smartly from within your Ruby code. This framework allows for numerous different flag types, and takes care of the process of type conversion and flag validation (type and value checking).
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Lookout Lookout is a unit testing framework for Ruby¹ that puts your results in focus. Tests (expectations) are written as follows expect 2 do 1 + 1 end expect ArgumentError do Integer('1 + 1') end expect Array do [1, 2, 3].select{ |i| i % 2 == 0 } end expect [2, 4, 6] do [1, 2, 3].map{ |i| i * 2 } end Lookout is designed to encourage – force, even – unit testing best practices such as • Setting up only one expectation per test • Not setting expectations on non-public APIs • Test isolation This is done by • Only allowing one expectation to be set per test • Providing no (additional) way of accessing private state • Providing no setup and tear-down methods, nor a method of providing test helpers Other important points are • Putting the expected outcome of a test in focus with the steps of the calculation of the actual result only as a secondary concern • A focus on code readability by providing no mechanism for describing an expectation other than the code in the expectation itself • A unified syntax for setting up both state-based and behavior-based expectations The way Lookout works has been heavily influenced by expectations², by {Jay Fields}³. The code base was once also heavily based on expectations, based at Subversion {revision 76}⁴. A lot has happened since then and all of the work past that revision are due to {Nikolai Weibull}⁵. ¹ Ruby: http://ruby-lang.org/ ² Expectations: http://expectations.rubyforge.org/ ³ Jay Fields’s blog: http://blog.jayfields.com/ ⁴ Lookout revision 76: https://github.com/now/lookout/commit/537bedf3e5b3eb4b31c066b3266f42964ac35ebe ⁵ Nikolai Weibull’s home page: http://disu.se/ § Installation Install Lookout with % gem install lookout § Usage Lookout allows you to set expectations on an object’s state or behavior. We’ll begin by looking at state expectations and then take a look at expectations on behavior. § Expectations on State: Literals An expectation can be made on the result of a computation: expect 2 do 1 + 1 end Most objects, in fact, have their state expectations checked by invoking ‹#==› on the expected value with the result as its argument. Checking that a result is within a given range is also simple: expect 0.099..0.101 do 0.4 - 0.3 end Here, the more general ‹#===› is being used on the ‹Range›. § Regexps ‹Strings› of course match against ‹Strings›: expect 'ab' do 'abc'[0..1] end but we can also match a ‹String› against a ‹Regexp›: expect %r{a substring} do 'a string with a substring' end (Note the use of ‹%r{…}› to avoid warnings that will be generated when Ruby parses ‹expect /…/›.) § Modules Checking that the result includes a certain module is done by expecting the ‹Module›. expect Enumerable do [] end This, due to the nature of Ruby, of course also works for classes (as they are also modules): expect String do 'a string' end This doesn’t hinder us from expecting the actual ‹Module› itself: expect Enumerable do Enumerable end or the ‹Class›: expect String do String end for obvious reasons. As you may have figured out yourself, this is accomplished by first trying ‹#==› and, if it returns ‹false›, then trying ‹#===› on the expected ‹Module›. This is also true of ‹Ranges› and ‹Regexps›. § Booleans Truthfulness is expected with ‹true› and ‹false›: expect true do 1 end expect false do nil end Results equaling ‹true› or ‹false› are slightly different: expect TrueClass do true end expect FalseClass do false end The rationale for this is that you should only care if the result of a computation evaluates to a value that Ruby considers to be either true or false, not the exact literals ‹true› or ‹false›. § IO Expecting output on an IO object is also common: expect output("abc\ndef\n") do |io| io.puts 'abc', 'def' end This can be used to capture the output of a formatter that takes an output object as a parameter. § Warnings Expecting warnings from code isn’t very common, but should be done: expect warning('this is your final one!') do warn 'this is your final one!' end expect warning('this is your final one!') do warn '%s:%d: warning: this is your final one!' % [__FILE__, __LINE__] end ‹$VERBOSE› is set to ‹true› during the execution of the block, so you don’t need to do so yourself. If you have other code that depends on the value of $VERBOSE, that can be done with ‹#with_verbose› expect nil do with_verbose nil do $VERBOSE end end § Errors You should always be expecting errors from – and in, but that’s a different story – your code: expect ArgumentError do Integer('1 + 1') end Often, not only the type of the error, but its description, is important to check: expect StandardError.new('message') do raise StandardError.new('message') end As with ‹Strings›, ‹Regexps› can be used to check the error description: expect StandardError.new(/mess/) do raise StandardError.new('message') end § Queries Through Symbols Symbols are generally matched against symbols, but as a special case, symbols ending with ‹?› are seen as expectations on the result of query methods on the result of the block, given that the method is of zero arity and that the result isn’t a Symbol itself. Simply expect a symbol ending with ‹?›: expect :empty? do [] end To expect it’s negation, expect the same symbol beginning with ‹not_›: expect :not_nil? do [1, 2, 3] end This is the same as expect true do [].empty? end and expect false do [1, 2, 3].empty? end but provides much clearer failure messages. It also makes the expectation’s intent a lot clearer. § Queries By Proxy There’s also a way to make the expectations of query methods explicit by invoking methods on the result of the block. For example, to check that the even elements of the Array ‹[1, 2, 3]› include ‹1› you could write expect result.to.include? 1 do [1, 2, 3].reject{ |e| e.even? } end You could likewise check that the result doesn’t include 2: expect result.not.to.include? 2 do [1, 2, 3].reject{ |e| e.even? } end This is the same as (and executes a little bit slower than) writing expect false do [1, 2, 3].reject{ |e| e.even? }.include? 2 end but provides much clearer failure messages. Given that these two last examples would fail, you’d get a message saying “[1, 2, 3]#include?(2)” instead of the terser “true≠false”. It also clearly separates the actual expectation from the set-up. The keyword for this kind of expectations is ‹result›. This may be followed by any of the methods • ‹#not› • ‹#to› • ‹#be› • ‹#have› or any other method you will want to call on the result. The methods ‹#to›, ‹#be›, and ‹#have› do nothing except improve readability. The ‹#not› method inverts the expectation. § Literal Literals If you need to literally check against any of the types of objects otherwise treated specially, that is, any instances of • ‹Module› • ‹Range› • ‹Regexp› • ‹Exception› • ‹Symbol›, given that it ends with ‹?› you can do so by wrapping it in ‹literal(…)›: expect literal(:empty?) do :empty? end You almost never need to do this, as, for all but symbols, instances will match accordingly as well. § Expectations on Behavior We expect our objects to be on their best behavior. Lookout allows you to make sure that they are. Reception expectations let us verify that a method is called in the way that we expect it to be: expect mock.to.receive.to_str(without_arguments){ '123' } do |o| o.to_str end Here, ‹#mock› creates a mock object, an object that doesn’t respond to anything unless you tell it to. We tell it to expect to receive a call to ‹#to_str› without arguments and have ‹#to_str› return ‹'123'› when called. The mock object is then passed in to the block so that the expectations placed upon it can be fulfilled. Sometimes we only want to make sure that a method is called in the way that we expect it to be, but we don’t care if any other methods are called on the object. A stub object, created with ‹#stub›, expects any method and returns a stub object that, again, expects any method, and thus fits the bill. expect stub.to.receive.to_str(without_arguments){ '123' } do |o| o.to_str if o.convertable? end You don’t have to use a mock object to verify that a method is called: expect Object.to.receive.name do Object.name end As you have figured out by now, the expected method call is set up by calling ‹#receive› after ‹#to›. ‹#Receive› is followed by a call to the method to expect with any expected arguments. The body of the expected method can be given as the block to the method. Finally, an expected invocation count may follow the method. Let’s look at this formal specification in more detail. The expected method arguments may be given in a variety of ways. Let’s introduce them by giving some examples: expect mock.to.receive.a do |m| m.a end Here, the method ‹#a› must be called with any number of arguments. It may be called any number of times, but it must be called at least once. If a method must receive exactly one argument, you can use ‹Object›, as the same matching rules apply for arguments as they do for state expectations: expect mock.to.receive.a(Object) do |m| m.a 0 end If a method must receive a specific argument, you can use that argument: expect mock.to.receive.a(1..2) do |m| m.a 1 end Again, the same matching rules apply for arguments as they do for state expectations, so the previous example expects a call to ‹#a› with 1, 2, or the Range 1..2 as an argument on ‹m›. If a method must be invoked without any arguments you can use ‹without_arguments›: expect mock.to.receive.a(without_arguments) do |m| m.a end You can of course use both ‹Object› and actual arguments: expect mock.to.receive.a(Object, 2, Object) do |m| m.a nil, 2, '3' end The body of the expected method may be given as the block. Here, calling ‹#a› on ‹m› will give the result ‹1›: expect mock.to.receive.a{ 1 } do |m| raise 'not 1' unless m.a == 1 end If no body has been given, the result will be a stub object. To take a block, grab a block parameter and ‹#call› it: expect mock.to.receive.a{ |&b| b.call(1) } do |m| j = 0 m.a{ |i| j = i } raise 'not 1' unless j == 1 end To simulate an ‹#each›-like method, ‹#call› the block several times. Invocation count expectations can be set if the default expectation of “at least once” isn’t good enough. The following expectations are possible • ‹#at_most_once› • ‹#once› • ‹#at_least_once› • ‹#twice› And, for a given ‹N›, • ‹#at_most(N)› • ‹#exactly(N)› • ‹#at_least(N)› § Utilities: Stubs Method stubs are another useful thing to have in a unit testing framework. Sometimes you need to override a method that does something a test shouldn’t do, like access and alter bank accounts. We can override – stub out – a method by using the ‹#stub› method. Let’s assume that we have an ‹Account› class that has two methods, ‹#slips› and ‹#total›. ‹#Slips› retrieves the bank slips that keep track of your deposits to the ‹Account› from a database. ‹#Total› sums the ‹#slips›. In the following test we want to make sure that ‹#total› does what it should do without accessing the database. We therefore stub out ‹#slips› and make it return something that we can easily control. expect 6 do |m| stub(Class.new{ def slips raise 'database not available' end def total slips.reduce(0){ |m, n| m.to_i + n.to_i } end }.new, :slips => [1, 2, 3]){ |account| account.total } end To make it easy to create objects with a set of stubbed methods there’s also a convenience method: expect 3 do s = stub(:a => 1, :b => 2) s.a + s.b end This short-hand notation can also be used for the expected value: expect stub(:a => 1, :b => 2).to.receive.a do |o| o.a + o.b end and also works for mock objects: expect mock(:a => 2, :b => 2).to.receive.a do |o| o.a + o.b end Blocks are also allowed when defining stub methods: expect 3 do s = stub(:a => proc{ |a, b| a + b }) s.a(1, 2) end If need be, we can stub out a specific method on an object: expect 'def' do stub('abc', :to_str => 'def'){ |a| a.to_str } end The stub is active during the execution of the block. § Overriding Constants Sometimes you need to override the value of a constant during the execution of some code. Use ‹#with_const› to do just that: expect 'hello' do with_const 'A::B::C', 'hello' do A::B::C end end Here, the constant ‹A::B::C› is set to ‹'hello'› during the execution of the block. None of the constants ‹A›, ‹B›, and ‹C› need to exist for this to work. If a constant doesn’t exist it’s created and set to a new, empty, ‹Module›. The value of ‹A::B::C›, if any, is restored after the block returns and any constants that didn’t previously exist are removed. § Overriding Environment Variables Another thing you often need to control in your tests is the value of environment variables. Depending on such global values is, of course, not a good practice, but is often unavoidable when working with external libraries. ‹#With_env› allows you to override the value of environment variables during the execution of a block by giving it a ‹Hash› of key/value pairs where the key is the name of the environment variable and the value is the value that it should have during the execution of that block: expect 'hello' do with_env 'INTRO' => 'hello' do ENV['INTRO'] end end Any overridden values are restored and any keys that weren’t previously a part of the environment are removed when the block returns. § Overriding Globals You may also want to override the value of a global temporarily: expect 'hello' do with_global :$stdout, StringIO.new do print 'hello' $stdout.string end end You thus provide the name of the global and a value that it should take during the execution of a block of code. The block gets passed the overridden value, should you need it: expect true do with_global :$stdout, StringIO.new do |overridden| $stdout != overridden end end § Integration Lookout can be used from Rake¹. Simply install Lookout-Rake²: % gem install lookout-rake and add the following code to your Rakefile require 'lookout-rake-3.0' Lookout::Rake::Tasks::Test.new Make sure to read up on using Lookout-Rake for further benefits and customization. ¹ Read more about Rake at http://rake.rubyforge.org/ ² Get information on Lookout-Rake at http://disu.se/software/lookout-rake/ § API Lookout comes with an API¹ that let’s you create things such as new expected values, difference reports for your types, and so on. ¹ See http://disu.se/software/lookout/api/ § Interface Design The default output of Lookout can Spartanly be described as Spartan. If no errors or failures occur, no output is generated. This is unconventional, as unit testing frameworks tend to dump a lot of information on the user, concerning things such as progress, test count summaries, and flamboyantly colored text telling you that your tests passed. None of this output is needed. Your tests should run fast enough to not require progress reports. The lack of output provides you with the same amount of information as reporting success. Test count summaries are only useful if you’re worried that your tests aren’t being run, but if you worry about that, then providing such output doesn’t really help. Testing your tests requires something beyond reporting some arbitrary count that you would have to verify by hand anyway. When errors or failures do occur, however, the relevant information is output in a format that can easily be parsed by an ‹'errorformat'› for Vim or with {Compilation Mode}¹ for Emacs². Diffs are generated for Strings, Arrays, Hashes, and I/O. ¹ Read up on Compilation mode for Emacs at http://www.emacswiki.org/emacs/CompilationMode ² Visit The GNU Foundation’s Emacs’ software page at http://www.gnu.org/software/emacs/ § External Design Let’s now look at some of the points made in the introduction in greater detail. Lookout only allows you to set one expectation per test. If you’re testing behavior with a reception expectation, then only one method-invocation expectation can be set. If you’re testing state, then only one result can be verified. It may seem like this would cause unnecessary duplication between tests. While this is certainly a possibility, when you actually begin to try to avoid such duplication you find that you often do so by improving your interfaces. This kind of restriction tends to encourage the use of value objects, which are easy to test, and more focused objects, which require simpler tests, as they have less behavior to test, per method. By keeping your interfaces focused you’re also keeping your tests focused. Keeping your tests focused improves, in itself, test isolation, but let’s look at something that hinders it: setup and tear-down methods. Most unit testing frameworks encourage test fragmentation by providing setup and tear-down methods. Setup methods create objects and, perhaps, just their behavior for a set of tests. This means that you have to look in two places to figure out what’s being done in a test. This may work fine for few methods with simple set-ups, but makes things complicated when the number of tests increases and the set-up is complex. Often, each test further adjusts the previously set-up object before performing any verifications, further complicating the process of figuring out what state an object has in a given test. Tear-down methods clean up after tests, perhaps by removing records from a database or deleting files from the file-system. The duplication that setup methods and tear-down methods hope to remove is better avoided by improving your interfaces. This can be done by providing better set-up methods for your objects and using idioms such as {Resource Acquisition Is Initialization}¹ for guaranteed clean-up, test or no test. By not using setup and tear-down methods we keep everything pertinent to a test in the test itself, thus improving test isolation. (You also won’t {slow down your tests}² by keeping unnecessary state.) Most unit test frameworks also allow you to create arbitrary test helper methods. Lookout doesn’t. The same rationale as that that has been crystallized in the preceding paragraphs applies. If you need helpers you’re interface isn’t good enough. It really is as simple as that. To clarify: there’s nothing inherently wrong with test helper methods, but they should be general enough that they reside in their own library. The support for mocks in Lookout is provided through a set of test helper methods that make it easier to create mocks than it would have been without them. Lookout-rack³ is another example of a library providing test helper methods (well, one method, actually) that are very useful in testing web applications that use Rack⁴. A final point at which some unit test frameworks try to fragment tests further is documentation. These frameworks provide ways of describing the whats and hows of what’s being tested, the rationale being that this will provide documentation of both the test and the code being tested. Describing how a stack data structure is meant to work is a common example. A stack is, however, a rather simple data structure, so such a description provides little, if any, additional information that can’t be extracted from the implementation and its tests themselves. The implementation and its tests is, in fact, its own best documentation. Taking the points made in the previous paragraphs into account, we should already have simple, self-describing, interfaces that have easily understood tests associated with them. Rationales for the use of a given data structure or system-design design documentation is better suited in separate documentation focused at describing exactly those issues. ¹ Read the Wikipedia entry for Resource Acquisition Is Initialization at http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Resource_Acquisition_Is_Initialization ² Read how 37signals had problems with slow Test::Unit tests at http://37signals.com/svn/posts/2742-the-road-to-faster-tests/ ³ Visit the Lookout-rack home page at http://disu.se/software/lookout-rack/ ⁴ Visit the Rack Rubyforge project page at http://rack.rubyforge.org/ § Internal Design The internal design of Lookout has had a couple of goals. • As few external dependencies as possible • As few internal dependencies as possible • Internal extensibility provides external extensibility • As fast load times as possible • As high a ratio of value objects to mutable objects as possible • Each object must have a simple, obvious name • Use mix-ins, not inheritance for shared behavior • As few responsibilities per object as possible • Optimizing for speed can only be done when you have all the facts § External Dependencies Lookout used to depend on Mocha for mocks and stubs. While benchmarking I noticed that a method in Mocha was taking up more than 300 percent of the runtime. It turned out that Mocha’s method for cleaning up back-traces generated when a mock failed was doing something incredibly stupid: backtrace.reject{ |l| Regexp.new(@lib).match(File.expand_path(l)) } Here ‹@lib› is a ‹String› containing the path to the lib sub-directory in the Mocha installation directory. I reported it, provided a patch five days later, then waited. Nothing happened. {254 days later}¹, according to {Wolfram Alpha}², half of my patch was, apparently – I say “apparently”, as I received no notification – applied. By that time I had replaced the whole mocking-and-stubbing subsystem and dropped the dependency. Many Ruby developers claim that Ruby and its gems are too fast-moving for normal package-managing systems to keep up. This is testament to the fact that this isn’t the case and that the real problem is instead related to sloppy practices. Please note that I don’t want to single out the Mocha library nor its developers. I only want to provide an example where relying on external dependencies can be “considered harmful”. ¹ See the Wolfram Alpha calculation at http://www.wolframalpha.com/input/?i=days+between+march+17%2C+2010+and+november+26%2C+2010 ² Check out the Wolfram Alpha computational knowledge engine at http://www.wolframalpha.com/ § Internal Dependencies Lookout has been designed so as to keep each subsystem independent of any other. The diff subsystem is, for example, completely decoupled from any other part of the system as a whole and could be moved into its own library at a time where that would be of interest to anyone. What’s perhaps more interesting is that the diff subsystem is itself very modular. The data passes through a set of filters that depends on what kind of diff has been requested, each filter yielding modified data as it receives it. If you want to read some rather functional Ruby I can highly recommend looking at the code in the ‹lib/lookout/diff› directory. This lookout on the design of the library also makes it easy to extend Lookout. Lookout-rack was, for example, written in about four hours and about 5 of those 240 minutes were spent on setting up the interface between the two. § Optimizing For Speed The following paragraph is perhaps a bit personal, but might be interesting nonetheless. I’ve always worried about speed. The original Expectations library used ‹extend› a lot to add new behavior to objects. Expectations, for example, used to hold the result of their execution (what we now term “evaluation”) by being extended by a module representing success, failure, or error. For the longest time I used this same method, worrying about the increased performance cost that creating new objects for results would incur. I finally came to a point where I felt that the code was so simple and clean that rewriting this part of the code for a benchmark wouldn’t take more than perhaps ten minutes. Well, ten minutes later I had my results and they confirmed that creating new objects wasn’t harming performance. I was very pleased. § Naming I hate low lines (underscores). I try to avoid them in method names and I always avoid them in file names. Since the current “best practice” in the Ruby community is to put ‹BeginEndStorage› in a file called ‹begin_end_storage.rb›, I only name constants using a single noun. This has had the added benefit that classes seem to have acquired less behavior, as using a single noun doesn’t allow you to tack on additional behavior without questioning if it’s really appropriate to do so, given the rather limited range of interpretation for that noun. It also seems to encourage the creation of value objects, as something named ‹Range› feels a lot more like a value than ‹BeginEndStorage›. (To reach object-oriented-programming Nirvana you must achieve complete value.) § News § 3.0.0 The ‹xml› expectation has been dropped. It wasn’t documented, didn’t suit very many use cases, and can be better implemented by an external library. The ‹arg› argument matcher for mock method arguments has been removed, as it didn’t provide any benefit over using Object. The ‹#yield› and ‹#each› methods on stub and mock methods have been removed. They were slightly weird and their use case can be implemented using block parameters instead. The ‹stub› method inside ‹expect› blocks now stubs out the methods during the execution of a provided block instead of during the execution of the whole except block. When a mock method is called too many times, this is reported immediately, with a full backtrace. This makes it easier to pin down what’s wrong with the code. Query expectations were added. Explicit query expectations were added. Fluent boolean expectations, for example, ‹expect nil.to.be.nil?› have been replaced by query expectations (‹expect :nil? do nil end›) and explicit query expectations (‹expect result.to.be.nil? do nil end›). This was done to discourage creating objects as the expected value and creating objects that change during the course of the test. The ‹literal› expectation was added. Equality (‹#==›) is now checked before “caseity” (‹#===›) for modules, ranges, and regular expressions to match the documentation. § Financing Currently, most of my time is spent at my day job and in my rather busy private life. Please motivate me to spend time on this piece of software by donating some of your money to this project. Yeah, I realize that requesting money to develop software is a bit, well, capitalistic of me. But please realize that I live in a capitalistic society and I need money to have other people give me the things that I need to continue living under the rules of said society. So, if you feel that this piece of software has helped you out enough to warrant a reward, please PayPal a donation to now@disu.se¹. Thanks! Your support won’t go unnoticed! ¹ Send a donation: https://www.paypal.com/cgi-bin/webscr?cmd=_donations&business=now%40disu%2ese&item_name=Lookout § Reporting Bugs Please report any bugs that you encounter to the {issue tracker}¹. ¹ See https://github.com/now/lookout/issues § Contributors Contributors to the original expectations codebase are mentioned there. We hope no one on that list feels left out of this list. Please {let us know}¹ if you do. • Nikolai Weibull ¹ Add an issue to the Lookout issue tracker at https://github.com/now/lookout/issues § Licensing Lookout is free software: you may redistribute it and/or modify it under the terms of the {GNU Lesser General Public License, version 3}¹ or later², as published by the {Free Software Foundation}³. ¹ See http://disu.se/licenses/lgpl-3.0/ ² See http://gnu.org/licenses/ ³ See http://fsf.org/
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The Preconditions library provides a simple set of methods for checking arguments being passed into a method. Instead of writing custom checks and raising exceptions directly in your code you can use Preconditions to verify basic properties of your arguments (not-nil, satisfying a boolean expression, being of a certain type/duck-type) and raise the appropriate exception for you.
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RubyBreaker is a dynamic type documentation/checking tool for Ruby. It dynamically instruments code, monitors objects during execution, performs dynamic type checking, and generates type documentation based on the profiled information. RubyBreaker helps Ruby programs "break" out of obscurities and convolutions by auto-documenting type information.
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== Description A Rack compatible JSON-RPC2 server domain specific language (DSL) - allows JSONRPC APIs to be defined as mountable Rack applications with inline documentation, authentication and type checking. e.g. class Calculator < JSONRPC2::Interface title "JSON-RPC2 Calculator" introduction "This interface allows basic maths calculations via JSON-RPC2" auth_with JSONRPC2::BasicAuth.new({'user' => 'secretword'}) section 'Simple Ops' do desc 'Multiply two numbers' param 'a', 'Number', 'a' param 'b', 'Number', 'b' result 'Number', 'a * b' def mul args args['a'] * args['b'] end desc 'Add numbers' example "Calculate 1 + 1 = 2", :params => { 'a' => 1, 'b' => 1}, :result => 2 param 'a', 'Number', 'First number' param 'b', 'Number', 'Second number' optional 'c', 'Number', 'Third number' result 'Number', 'a + b + c' def sum args val = args['a'] + args['b'] val += args['c'] if args['c'] val end end end
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# Fresh::Auth This gem makes it really, REALLY easy to use the Freshbooks API. It couldn't be easier. With only 3 functions you'll ever need to use, and only 2 required configuration values, it can't get any easier. ## Installation Add this line to your application's Gemfile: gem 'fresh-auth' And then execute: $ bundle Or install it yourself as: $ gem install fresh-auth ## Usage ### Configuration: You must define your Freshbooks subdomain and your OAuth Secret in your application code before using Fresh::Auth. For Ruby on Rails apps, a new file at config/initializers/fresh-auth.rb would be appropriate. Your configuration file should look like this (you fill in the three empty strings): Fresh::Auth.configure do |config| # The part of your login url between 'http://' and '.freshbooks.com' config.url.subdomain = "" # Under 'My Account' (on the top right when you're logged into Freshbooks) # -> 'Freshbooks API' -> 'OAuth Developer Access' -> 'OAuth Secret' # You'll need to request this from Freshbooks initially. config.oauth_secret = "" # Optional. Any string of your choice. Be creative or check out http://www.thebitmill.com/tools/password.html config.nonce_salt = "" end Fear not: If you try to use Fresh::Auth without configuring it first, an exception will be thrown that clearly describes the problem. ### Public API: There are two modules in this API: Fresh::Auth::Authentication and Fresh::Auth::Api #### Fresh::Auth::Authentication This module authenticates you with Freshbooks, storing the authentication in an array called `session`. This integrates seamlessly with Ruby on Rails' controller environment. If you're using some framework other than Ruby on Rails, make sure to define session in your class before including the Authentication module. This isn't recommended because your class will also need to define other objects called `params` and `request` and implement a `redirect_to` method. It gets complicated. Better leave it to Rails to handle this for you. The only public function of this module is AuthenticateWithFreshbooks. To use it, just add the following line of code to your controller: ` include Fresh::Auth::Authentication ` Then, the following line of code authenticates with Freshbooks from any method in your controller: ` AuthenticateWithFreshbooks() ` Note that, after authenticating with Freshbooks, the user will be redirected back to the same path using HTTP GET, so make sure the resource supports HTTP GET and that in the business logic executed on GET, AuthenticateWihFreshbooks() is called. #### Fresh::Auth::Api Once you've authenticated, you want to send XML requests to Freshbooks. The first step is preparing the XML with Fresh::Auth::Api.GenerateXml, which you'll supply with a block that defines all the nested XML that you want in your request. GenerateXml also takes two arguments before the block: the class and method that you want to call. First, in your controller: `include Fresh::Auth::Api` Then, in some method in that controller: my_xml = GenerateXml :invoice, :update do |xml| xml.client_id 20 xml.status 'sent' xml.notes 'Pick up the car by 5' xml.terms 'Cash only' xml.lines { xml.line { xml.name 'catalytic converter' xml.quantity 1 xml.unit_cost 450 xml.type 'Item' } xml.line { xml.name 'labor' xml.quantity 1 xml.unit_cost 60 xml.type 'Time' } } end Ok, you created the XML. Now you want to send it. Sounds pretty complicated, right? Not at all! Ready? Let's go! `_response = PostToFreshbooksApi my_xml` Now, are you wondering what's in `_response`? I'll tell you shortly, but before we discuss that, we have to know about the exception that PostToFreshbooksApi might raise. It raises a detailed error message if the response status is not 'ok'. Makes sense, right? Now, you still want to know what's in `_response`? Oh, nothing fancy. Just a Nokogiri XML object, representing the root element of the xml response. Could this get any easier? ## Contributing 1. Fork it 2. Create your feature branch (`git checkout -b my-new-feature`) 3. Commit your changes (`git commit -am 'Added some feature'`) 4. Push to the branch (`git push origin my-new-feature`) 5. Create new Pull Request
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Create and manage configuration files in Ruby for Ruby. Jeckyl can be used to create a parameters hash from a simple config file written in Ruby, having run whatever checks you want on the file to ensure the values passed in are valid. All you need to do is define a class inheriting from Jeckyl, methods for each parameter, its default, whatever checking rules are appropriate and even a comment for generating templates etc. This is then used to parse a Ruby config file and create the parameters hash. Jeckyl comes complete with a utility to check a config file against a given class and to generate a default file for you to tailor. Type 'jeckyl readme' for more information.
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# License Create software licenses easily. ## Install ### Bundler: `gem 'license'` ### RubyGems: `gem install license` ## Usage ### Simple ```ruby license = License::Software::MIT.new do |l| l.year.start = 2012 l.author.name = 'Ryan Scott Lewis' l.author.email = 'ryan@rynet.us' end p license.to_s # => "Copyright (c) 2012 Ryan Scott Lewis <ryan@rynet.us>\n\nPermission is hereby granted, free of charge..." ``` ### Multiple Authors ```ruby license = License::Software::MIT.new do |l| l.year.start = 2012 l.authors.add name: 'Ryan Scott Lewis', email: 'ryan@rynet.us' l.authors.add name: 'John Doe', email: 'john.doe@example.com' l.authors.add name: 'Snake Pliskin' l.authors.add 'John McClane <john@mcclain.org, jmcclane@gmail.com>' end p license.to_s # => "Copyright (c) 2012 Ryan Scott Lewis <ryan@rynet.us>, John Doe <john.doe@example.com>\n\nPermission is hereby granted, free of charge..." p license.authors.first.name # => 'Ryan Scott Lewis' p license.authors.first.email # => 'ryan@rynet.us' p license.authors.last.name # => 'John McClane' p license.authors.last.email # => 'john@mcclain.org' p license.authors.last.emails # => ['john@mcclain.org', 'jmcclane@gmail.com] ``` #### Smart Setters ```ruby license = License::Software.new do |l| l.type = License::Software::MIT # Set which type of license here instead l.year = '2006-2011' # Will set year.start to 2006 and year.end to 2011 l.authors = 'Ryan Scott Lewis<ryan@rynet>, John Doe < john.doe@example.com >' end p license.to_s # => "Copyright (c) 2012 Ryan Scott Lewis <ryan@rynet.us>, John Doe <john.doe@example.com>\n\nPermission is hereby granted, free of charge..." ``` #### Advanced usage (preferred method) ```ruby license = License::Software.new do # Do not pass block variables to enter the scope of the License::Software type MIT year 2012 author 'Ryan Scott Lewis <ryan@rynet.us>' end p license.to_s # => "Copyright (c) 2012 Ryan Scott Lewis <ryan@rynet.us>\n\nPermission is hereby granted, free of charge..." ``` ## Contributing * Check out the latest master to make sure the feature hasn't been implemented or the bug hasn't been fixed yet * Check out the issue tracker to make sure someone already hasn't requested it and/or contributed it * Fork the project * Start a feature/bugfix branch * Commit and push until you are happy with your contribution * Make sure to add tests for it. This is important so I don't break it in a future version unintentionally. * Please try not to mess with the Rakefile, version, or history. If you want to have your own version, or is otherwise necessary, that is fine, but please isolate to its own commit so I can cherry-pick around it. ## Copyright Copyright © 2012 Ryan Scott Lewis <ryan@rynet.us>. The MIT License (MIT) - See LICENSE for further details.
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# EventReporter EventReporter is a CSV parser and sorter. you can load a CSV and then search it. ## Installation $ gem install the_only_event_reporter_ever $ gem list event_reporter -d ## Usage After installation run: $ event_reporter Then Type 'load <filename>' to load records from a CSV $ Load event_attendees.csv Try these commands $ Find first_name sarah $Queue Print $Queue Save to <filename> ### Saving the queue accepts extensions JSON, XML, TXT, CSV. ## Contributing 1. Fork it 2. Create your feature branch (`git checkout -b my-new-feature`) 3. Commit your changes (`git commit -am 'Add some feature'`) 4. Push to the branch (`git push origin my-new-feature`) 5. Create new Pull Request
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Makes sure users don't accidentally create an account for the wrong e-mail address. Because 'gmial' isn't actually what they meant to type. Similarly, 'yaho.com', or the strange-but-true '.c0m'. Not even making that one up. If you're concerned about false-positives, it's super-easy to check. There's only a single method. Also, it's fully-tested.
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FlexCoerce - is a gem which allow you create operator-dependent coercion logic. It's useful when your type should be treated in a different way for different binary operations (including arithmetic operators, bitwise operators and comparison operators except equality checks: `==`, `===`).
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