The project is in a healthy, maintained state
This little module (and attendant command line tool and rackup app) exists for the purpose of providing rudimentary access control to a website when the prospective users are both small in number, and very busy. It circumvents schmucking around provisioning passwords by generating a link which you can pass to each of your users through some other mechanism, that when visited logs them in and keeps them logged in as long as you want. This is basically the equivalent of having a "forgot password" link without anybody having to click on "forgot password", and is perfectly adequate security in certain contexts, namely the ones the author of this gem is interested in.


>= 2.1
>= 13.0
>= 3.9


>= 4.4
>= 1.9.1
>= 1.5.1
>= 0.12
>= 2.7.1
>= 2.0
>= 5.20
>= 2.1
>= 0.1.13
 Project Readme

Forget Passwords: Log in the Lazy Way

Forget Passwords is a stand-alone Web authentication module that replicates the "forgot-my-password" user flow, which will, on request, e-mail a special link to an address on a predefined list, in lieu of password-based authentication. This module makes use of a lesser-known feature of the FastCGI protocol to do its work, and plugs into a receiving end such as Apache's mod_authnz_fcgi.

Rationale & Goal

I have various Web properties littered around the internet in various stages of development. Sometimes I want to show these properties to people, but only certain people—an example being both existing and prospective clients.

Providing meaningful protection to a website almost always entails some kind of authentication mechanism, and unless you go exotic, this almost always means some kind of password. A single, shared password is often inadequate protection because it can be leaked. This means everybody to whom I would want to access one of these Web properties would need their own password.

In this particular case, I am looking to support a relatively small number of people, the total extent of whom is not necessarily known up front. Under a password-based authentication regime, not only would I be burdening clients and prospects with yet another set of authentication credentials to manage, but I would also be burdening myself with the chore of fielding requests for new accounts* as stragglers trickle in, as well as reset or retrieve lost passwords.

* I suppose I could set up UI for them to create their own accounts and retrieve their lost passwords, but that would actually be more work than the solution I propose here, and the net effect would be to further burden my users.

The solution to this problem stems from observing that the long tail of Web authentication is serviced by the archetypal forgot my password flow itself, so why force people to go through the extra step of creating, and then remembering, a password?

The goal, then, is to create an authentication module that replicates the forgot-my-password flow, provides about the same security as Basic authentication over SSL, has a generic-enough user interface to be merged seamlessly into any existing system, and otherwise interacts minimally with any downstream access control mechanism or Web application, including static content. An additional requirement is that a mapping scheme (e.g. website domain to e-mail domain) can be set up to provision identities (accounts) automatically.

How It Works

This module mainly operates as a FastCGI application in the AUTHORIZER role, intended to plug into Apache's mod_authnz_fcgi or any workalike, and configured in the server just as one would any other authentication module. In addition to the authentication module, there a couple of dynamic pages (namely login, logout) that need to be surfaced as well. (Their locations are configurable.)

When unauthenticated users hit the protected area, they are met with a form entreating them to enter their e-mail address. When they submit the form, they are mailed a link with a random token attached to it that provides the authentication. When the user visits the link, the authentication handler trades the token attached to the URL (marking it as used in the process) for a cookie. Responses to subsequent requests then match the cookie to the user's e-mail address, and use that to populate the REMOTE_USER field, which can then be picked up by any downstream authorization handler or Web application.

Users of this system must be pre-authorized. The forgetpw command-line tool that ships with this package has a verb for doing this. Since the primary use case for this module is client extranets, and it is customary that everybody at Widgets, Inc., will have a address, entire e-mail domains can be mapped to Web domains. In other words, you can say "grant access to anybody at widgets dot biz to", and then not have to think subsequently about whether this or that person at the company has access.

Also, if necessary, specific addresses can be blocked.

This module uses an SQL database as its primary storage mechanism. It has been tested with SQLite and PostgreSQL, though in principle it should work with anything for which there is a Sequel driver. Use of SQLite is discouraged in production, due to its well-known inability to handle concurrent transactions. There is a secondary storage in the module itself for the little over a dozen user interface templates. The locations of these (and thus their contents) can be overridden in a configuration file, along with a number of other parameters, a few of which (e.g., data source name, e-mail sender) are necessary for the module to operate.


To start using Forget Passwords, we'll assume you have done the necessary setup on the server (below), as well as all the necessary setup for an address to send e-mail from. After that, we'll need a database (this example uses PostgreSQL; you can of course skip this step for SQLite):

$ createdb forgetpw

Now we initialize the configuration file and create the tables:

$ forgetpw -c ~/.forgetpw.yml init -d postgres:///forgetpw \

Note: the init command uses the -c flag as the location to write a new configuration file, while all other commands use the flag as the source to read from an existing one. The program otherwise looks for forgetpw.yml in the current directory.

Now we privilege some e-mail addresses:

$ forgetpw -c ~/.forgetpw.yml privilege \
-d some@other.person

Now, assuming we have configured the server, we start the daemon:

$ forgetpw -c ~/.forgetpw.yml fcgi
Running authenticator daemon on fcgi://localhost:10101/

You can use -z to detach the process. Listener IP and port are of course also configurable.

Server Configuration

Currently the only known receptacle for this module is mod_authnz_fcgi, which ships with Apache, though the interface is standard (to the extent that FastCGI is a standard), and so in principle it is usable in other systems. What follows is the configuration for Apache 2.4.x or newer.

First, we need to declare the authenticator (here it can be called anything but we are appropriately calling it ForgetPasswords) and where it's listening:

AuthnzFcgiDefineProvider authn ForgetPasswords fcgi://localhost:10101/

On Debian systems and their derivatives, this is in a separate file, mods-available/authnz_fcgi.conf. Note that you will also have to a2enmod authnz_fcgi or none of this configuration will work.

Then, in the virtual host (or main server configuration in lieu thereof), we can use any standard configuration mechanism we want to delineate the protected area. We invoke the module with the AuthnzFcgiCheckAuthnProvider directive, and then tune it with Require. mod_authnz_fcgi has a number of idiosyncrasies, one of which is that it always must return a user, so we have to give it a throwaway user like nobody, and then subsequently deny that user. (I would consider this a design flaw in mod_authnz_fcgi.) The expression %{reqenv:FCGI_USER} (where the slug FCGI_USER is configurable on our side) is how the identity gets transmitted upstream from Forget Passwords to the server.

<Location /protected>
  # unfortunately mod_authnz_fcgi won't let you have a blank default user
  AuthnzFcgiCheckAuthnProvider ForgetPasswords Authoritative On RequireBasicAuth Off UserExpr "%{reqenv:FCGI_USER}" DefaultUser nobody
    Require valid-user
    # that's fine, we just outlaw 'nobody'
    Require not user nobody

Another idiosyncrasy of mod_authnz_fcgi is that while it uses the 200 response code to indicate a success, the actual response back to the client necessarily has to come from the downstram content handler. As such, any other information from a successful authentication response needs to be smuggled out through environment variables. Since Forget Passwords performs a redirect to remove the authentication token from the URL upon successful authentication, the following mod_rewrite configuration needs to be in place to turn the environment variable back into an actual redirect:

RewriteCond %{QUERY_STRING} .+
RewriteCond %{ENV:FCGI_REDIRECT} .+
RewriteRule .* %{ENV:FCGI_REDIRECT} [R=307,L,QSD]

Note that mod_rewrite syntax is different from ap_expr syntax, and the prefix ENV is used in the expression instead of reqenv above. We also use QSD to remove the query string from the currently-requested URI, and redirect with 307 to preserve the request method.

Note as well that URL rewriting typically happens before authorization, so the environment variable will not yet be set unless you trick the RewriteRule to run in a later phase (e.g. by putting it in a <Directory> block or .htaccess).

We also need to account for unsuccessful responses from the authentication module, since certain headers (notably Content-Type) are either getting overwritten by an unfortunate interaction with the default error handler, or are otherwise not being transmitted (which would be another bug in mod_authnz_fcgi).

Header always set Content-Type "expr=%{resp:Variable-FCGI_CONTENT_TYPE}" "expr=%{resp:Variable-FCGI_CONTENT_TYPE} != ''"
Header always unset Variable-FCGI_CONTENT_TYPE

Finally, the module provides two dynamic resources that need to be mapped to content handlers; here we use mod_proxy_fcgi (remember to enable it):

ProxyPass /email-link fcgi://localhost:10101/email-link
ProxyPass /logout     fcgi://localhost:10101/logout

An earlier design had these operations controlled exclusively by POST parameters on any resource, and therefore these purpose-made resources were ostensibly not necessary. However, it turns out that mod_authnz_fcgi does not convey request body content to the downstream FastCGI script, causing the latter to crash with a protocol error. While the handling is less than delicate, this is actually a reasonable expectation, as request bodies are only read once off the wire and will thus be already consumed (whether or not they contain the fields to which Forget Passwords is sensitive) when the content handler is invoked. (The way Apache handles the request body, it can be duplicated and reinserted into the input stream, but that is a whole project unto itself.


I have noticed that a RewriteRule (in a .htaccess) with the passthrough (PT) flag will short-circuit the redirect that happens when a user follows the link off an e-mail. Same ostensibly goes for overriding DirectoryIndex in a .htaccess. The observable effect is that the server returns 401 (and doesn't redirect/remove the query string) even though the cookie is set and the knock token is consumed. If you refresh the page, then it will say (correctly, from its point of view) that the link is expired. If you manually chop off the query string, it will correctly display the logged-in state.

One thing I didn't check is if it still returned a Location: header, which the browser will ignore if the response code is anything other than most (but not all) of the 300s and 201.

This is likely because these configuration directives are causing subrequests and/or internal redirects, which triggers the handler, but doesn't convey its response to the client. This might be an inherent limitation of using FastCGI in AUTHORIZER mode, because there is no way to tell it that it is being triggered from a subrequest (unless there is?). More research is needed to probe potential interactions with other handlers.


Forget Passwords has a number of UI states that are embedded in the gem. These take the form of template files. The functionality of these templates is currently at the absolute bare minimum required to do the job. The templates are XHTML, with a basic placeholder substitution functionality, which can take place either in processing instructions (<?var $WHATEVER?>), or attribute values (<elem attr="$WHATEVER"/>).

I did this deliberately for a few reasons, the first being that the substitutions occur in a way such that the input and the output always validates, i.e., there is no way to produce broken markup. The second is that this system neither needs nor merits a more sophisticated templating system. Each state is directly addressable; it gets its own template file. Anything that needs to be addressed in any individual state, save for a small number of substitutions in text nodes or attribute values, can be done by supplanting its file with a different one. Any styling or page composition needed to knit these states into their surroundings can be handled through an exterior mechanism, which I will endeavour to write up separately. I may consider different or additional template mechanisms (e.g. markdown, or any of the zillion non-standard template engines) at some point in the future.

Note as well that the templates are not currently internationalized, but I am open to making them so if there is sufficient demand.

The configuration parameter transform under templates will cause an xml-stylesheet processing instruction to be inserted into all outgoing templates with the location of an XSLT stylesheet, enabling arbitrary manipulations (and also the main reason why these templates are XHTML and not regular HTML).

NOTE 2022-04-22 this forgetpw extract business is still under construction.

The default templates for all states are embedded in the gem distribution, and can be overridden individually or en masse in the configuration file by specifying the location of a supplanting file. The command-line verb forgetpw extract $DESTINATION will extract the full set of templates from the gem, and deposit copies of them wherever you tell it to.

In addition to these templates that get piped out from arbitrary locations, there are a couple resources, namely two logout states (/logged-out for current device; /logged-out-all for all devices), which can be completely static. Boilerplate for these states is included in the distribution and can be retrieved by running forgetpw extract --static. The URLs of these resources can naturally be overridden in the configuration file.

Out of an abundance of prudence I should also remark that to eliminate file extensions in static resources (at least in Apache), enable mod_negotiation and add MultiViews to any Options directive in scope.

What follows is the list of states, when they show up, and roughly what they say. Most of them are specific error conditions:

default_401 (currently handled by basic-401.xhtml)

This page is the one everybody sees when they are not logged in, unless a more specific page is more appropriate. It explains that the area is protected, and the way to get access (assuming that you're on the list) is to enter your e-mail address. It then provides said form. Note that the action= of the form must point to the location of the email-link resource, and there must also be a hidden form field by the name of forward that contains the current URL.

default_404 (currently handled by basic-404.xhtml)

This resource should actually never be seen, as it currently only arises when outside content-handling traffic is directed to locations other than the two specified by Forget Passwords.

knock_bad (currently handled by basic-409.xhtml)

This is shown when the knock-knock token attached to the URL is malformed. It is an undifferentiated 409 Conflict message, which also includes a form like the one found in the default 401.

knock_not_found (currently handled by basic-409.xhtml)

This is shown when the token is not malformed, but also not present in the database. (This is treated as a 403 Forbidden, but the error message is not meaningfully different from 409, so it gets the same message by default.)

knock_expired (currently handled by nonce-expired.xhtml)

Here, the token attached to the link sent out in the e-mail has expired, i.e., the user has not claimed it in time (by default, 10 minutes). Again we notify themm, and show them the form to generate a new one.

cookie_bad (currently handled by basic-409.xhtml)

This recapitulates the knock_bad scenario, but with a cookie.

cookie_not_found (currently handled by basic-409.xhtml)

The cookie equivalent of knock_not_found.

cookie_expired (currently handled by cookie-expired.xhtml)

This message is shown when the user has a cookie which has been invalidated either by a logout or has been expired on the server side. The user is given an opportunity to log back in.

no_user (currently handled by not-on-list.xhtml)

This message is returned when the cookie is valid but the user is not, e.g. their access was revoked since they hit the site last. They are given an opportunity to log back in.

forward_bad (currently handled by uri-409.xhtml)

This message is shown as the result of the user submitting their e-mail when the forwarding address (URL), which should have been included in the submitted form, is malformed (e.g. does not match the domain). This is nominally a client error but it should never be reached by normal operation. The only way a user would get here is a misconfiguration on our part, or an attempt at abuse. We tell them to go back and try again.

email (currently handled by email.xhtml)

This is the actual e-mail that gets sent to the user. Note that the <title> gets turned into the subject, and the entire thing is also stripped to plain text.

email_bad (currently handled by email-409.xhtml)

This status is returned after a user submits an e-mail address that is syntactically bad.

email_not_listed (currently handled by not-on-list.xhtml)

This happens when the e-mail address is not on the permit list. Users are given an opportunity to try a different one.

email_failed (currently handled by basic-500.xhtml)

This happens when the e-mailing process itself fails, e.g. when the script can't connectd to the specified SMTP server.

email_sent (currently handled by email-sent.xhtml)

This is the confirmation page people see when Forget Passwords has accepted their e-mmail address and sent the link-containing e-mail.

post_only (currently handled by post-405.xhtml)

This error only occurs when somebody tries to access one of the two targets (by default /email-link and /logout) by a request method other than POST, which should never happen outside of normal operation.

All Configuration Options


The host to listen on; defaults (as expected) to localhost.


The TCP port, default 10101.


This is the configuration group involving the persistent state, i.e. the database.

  • dsn is the DSN (data source name), i.e., the connection string that gets passed into Sequel.
  • user is the user name, which can be rolled into the DSN or separated out.
  • Same goes for the password.
  • options are additional options that get passed directly to the Sequel constructor.
  • expiry deals with the expiration times of the different kinds of token, which are represented as ISO 8601 durations:
    • query handles the expiry for the token in the link's query string, defaulting to 10 minutes (PT10M)
    • cookie handles the expiry for the cookie, defaulting to two weeks (which gets refreshed by accessing the site; P2W)


These are overrides for different keys in query strings and HTML forms.

  • query is the key for the URL query string component that contains the nonce token; it defaults to knock.
  • cookie is the key for the cookie, which defaults to forgetpw.
  • email is the form key where the user's e-mail address is expected, defaulting to email.
  • logout is the form key which would be set to something true-ish (true, yes, on, 1) for whether to log out all tokens or just the current one, defaulting to logout.


These are overrides for the names of the environment variables that are handed back to mod_authnz_fcgi, in case anything collides with an existing setup and needs to be called something else.

  • useris what gets retrieved and turned into REMOTE_USER, defaulting to FCGI_USER.
  • redirect is what gets retrieved and turned into a Location: header, defaulting to FCGI_REDIRECT.
  • type is what gets retrieved and turned into a Content-Type: header, defaulting to FCGI_CONTENT_TYPE.


These are (relative, but not necessarily) URLs to pages that perform specific functions within the system, and have a stable location.

  • login is the target that accepts the POST request from the 401 page and others, that sends the e-mail and issues a confirmation. It defaults to /email-link. This resource is powered by Forget Passwords and is used internally to configure the location of that resource.
  • logout is the target that accepts the POST request to log out. It (rather predictably) defaults to /logout. This location is also handled by Forget Passwords.
  • logout_one is a static (or other arbitrary) target (i.e., not handled by Forget Passwords) that confirms the user has logged out their current session. It defaults to /logged-out.
  • logout_all is another static target that confirms the user has logged out of all devices.


This is configuration for the various templates.

  • path is the template root, that defaults to content/ under the gem root.
  • transform is the URL of an XSLT stylesheet. Omitted if omitted.
  • mapping is a key-value structure of templates (listed above) to file names, relative to path.


This is configuration for the e-mail sender.

  • from is the sender's address; it has no default.
  • method is how the sender will send mail, defaults to sendmail.
  • options is a key-value structure of additional options, e.g. for when the method is smtp. It is fed directly into Mail::Message#delivery_method.

Minimal Configuration

This is the absolute bare minimum configuration you will need supply directly. All other values have defaults:

  dsn: whatever://database
  # this is actually optional, but there is no default value.
  transform: /transform.xsl
  # additional SMTP configuration would go here, if applicable.

Alternate Authentication Methods

It is possible to take the token in the cookie and feed it in as either a Basic authentication password or Bearer token. In the case of Basic, the username is ignored. This enables curl or API access, or other automated things like feed readers. There is currently no UI for this, but an "app password" management screen is potentially on the horizon.

Future Directions

This project began on something of a lark, with the intent to make a quick-and-easy passwordless authentication mechanism with zero UI, or rather, I was the UI, manually e-mailing magic links to people. What I found when I put this scheme into production was that people balked because the experience was actually too seamless: a prospective client insisted on believing a confidential proposal was just out on the open internet for anybody to see, even though this was not the case. As a result, I shelved this code for three years because I didn't have time to do what was necessary to ameliorate it.

What I had here was an optics problem: the user needs to see that the content is protected, and logging in has to be a positive action; something that they do. This meant going from zero UI, to rather quite a bit of it. As such, I anticipate what was once a one-off endeavour is now a significant Project™ that will have to be maintained and expanded upon.

What follows are some remarks around where things might go.

How about a test suite?

My philosophy around automated tests is that they are useful for ensuring the behaviour of a piece of code without having to look directly at it. In my experience, getting little products like these to a functioning state is system-heavy, which has a crapload of overhead setting up a test regime, and furthermore the various constituent parts either very obviously work or very obviously do not. In other words, eyeballing it is a perfectly satisfactory quality assurance regime in the early stages of development (at least until it gets out of hand, which in this case it didn't). Now that it works (as of 2022-04-22), the focus can shift to keeping it that way.

How about expanding out the templates?

Localizing the templates is definitely a possibility, as well as making domain-specific overrides so a single Forget Passwords daemon could handle multiple domains with tailor-fit responses for each. I am less sanguine about going hog-wild with the templates but I could see some kind of future plug-in interface so people could use their favourite flavour of templating engine.

Reconcile with OAuth

Let's face it: this thing is 98% of what OAuth does: it trades one token for another over a more-or-less secure side channel. It could be made a heck of a lot simpler by just…wrapping OAuth.

Indeed, bearer tokens would make for an excellent cleavage plane for segmented authentication: Method X to bearer token, then bearer token to REMOTE_USER. This means we could have multiple authentication mechanisms (Forget Passwords, OAuth, X.509, Kerberos, boring old password, whatever) operating in the same space at once.

The really interesting thing is mod_authnz_fcgi

At least in principle. The actual module itself is a bit of a dog (although not un-groomable), but the fact that the FastCGI people had the presence of mind to design modes for things other than content (there is a FILTER role as well) is actually quite interesting.

The vast majority of Web development happens exclusively inside what can be termed a content handler. This is where all server-side platforms and frameworks operate. In reality, Web servers (like Apache and nginx) have a number of phases, most of them happening before the content handler, that can be addressed directly—provided you write your module in C. What mod_authnz_fcgi does is tap the authentication phase of Apache's request-handling loop and open it up to cheap scripts written in any language that speak FastCGI. This means that stand-alone modules like Forget Passwords can be used in conjunction with any downstream Web application framework or development strategy. Some additional observations:

  • It doesn't have to be FastCGI: There is really no reason in principle why, with some creative reading of the HTTP protocol, that this functionality couldn't be handled 100% by a stand-alone Web service that the main workhorse server proxies to.
  • This could be done for any phase: Using said creative reading of the HTTP protocol, this puts any phase in the request-handling process, for either Apache or nginx, on the table, assuming the appropriate module (in C) is written for each.

So, yeah, big opportunity there to take modularity in Web development to the next level.


You know how to do this:

$ gem install forget-passwords

Or, download it off


Bug reports and pull requests are welcome at the GitHub repository.

Copyright & License

©2019-2022 Dorian Taylor

This software is provided under the Apache License, 2.0.