Project

hermes-rb

0.0
The project is in a healthy, maintained state
A messenger of gods, delivering them via RabbitMQ with a little help from Hutch
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 Project Readme

Hermes

Hermes - a messenger of gods, delivering them via RabbitMQ with a little help from hutch.

Installation

Add this line to your application's Gemfile:

gem 'hermes-rb'

And then execute:

$ bundle install

Or install it yourself as:

$ gem install hermes-rb

Usage

First, define an initializer, for example config/initializers/hermes.rb

Rails.application.config.to_prepare do
  event_handler = Hermes::EventHandler.new

  Hermes.configure do |config|
    config.adapter = Rails.application.config.async_messaging_adapter
    config.application_prefix = "my_app"
    config.background_processor = HermesHandlerJob
    config.enqueue_method = :perform_async
    config.event_handler = event_handler
    config.clock = Time.zone
    config.instrumenter = Instrumenter
    config.configure_hutch do |hutch|
      hutch.uri = ENV.fetch("HUTCH_URI")
      hutch.force_publisher_confirms = true
      hutch.enable_http_api_use = false
      hutch.tracer = MyOwnCustomTracerIfIWantToDoSomethingCrazy
    end
    config.distributed_tracing_database_uri = ENV.fetch("DISTRIBUTED_TRACING_DATABASE_URI", nil)
    config.error_notification_service = Raven
  end

  event_handler.handle_events do
    handle Events::Example::Happened, with: Example::HappenedHandler
    handle Events::Example::SyncCallHappened, with: Example::SyncCallHappenedHandler, async: false

    extra_consumer_config = -> do
      classic_queue
      quorum_queue initial_group_size: 3
      arguments "x-max-length" => 10
    end
    handle Events::Example::SomethingHappenedWithExtraConsumerConfig, with: Example::SomethingHappenedWithExtraConsumerConfigHandler,
      consumer_config: extra_consumer_config
  end

  # if you care about distributed tracing
  if Hermes.configuration.store_distributed_traces?
    Hermes::DistributedTrace.establish_connection(Hermes.configuration.distributed_tracing_database_uri)
  end
end

Hutch::Logging.logger = Rails.logger if !Rails.env.test? && !Rails.env.development?

Note that not all options are required (could be the case if the application is just a producer or just a consumer).

  1. adapter - messages can be either delivered via RabbitMQ or in-memory adapter (useful for testing). Most likely you will want to make it based on the environment, that's why it's advisable to use Rails.application.config.async_messaging_adapter and define async_messaging_adapter on config object in development.rb, test.rb and production.rb files. The recommended setup is to assign config.async_messaging_adapter = :in_memory for test ENV and config.async_messaging_adapter = :hutch for production and development ENVs.
  2. application_prefix - identifier for this application. ABSOLUTELY NECESSARY unless you want to have competing queues with different applications (hint: most likely you don't want that).

3 and 4. background_processor and enqueue_method. By design, Hermes is supposed to use Hutch workers to fetch the messages from RabbitMQ and process them in some background jobs framework. background_processor refers to the name of the class for the job and enqueue_method is the method name that will be called when enqueuing the job. This method must accept three arguments: event_class, body and headers. Here is an example for Sidekiq:

class HermesHandlerJob
  include Sidekiq::Worker

  sidekiq_options queue: :critical

  def perform(event_class, body, headers)
    Hermes::EventProcessor.call(event_class, body, headers)
  end
end

If you know what you are doing, you don't necessarily have to process things in the background. As long as the class implements the expected interface, you can do anything you want.

  1. event_handler - an instance of event handler/storage, just use what is shown in the example. Notice that you can also pass extra consumer config lambda that will be evaluated within the context of Hutch consumer.
  2. clock - a clock object that is time-zone aware, implementing now method.
  3. configure_hutch - a way to configure Hutch:
    • uri - the URI for RabbitMQ, required.
    • force_publisher_confirms - defaults to true
    • enable_http_api_use - defaults to false
    • tracer - defaults to Hermes::Tracers::Datadog if you use Datadog, Hutch::Tracers::NewRelic for NewRelic and Hutch::Tracers::NullTracer if you use neither Datadog, nor NewRelic. Check APM section for more details if you want to provide a custom tracer.
  4. event_handler.handle_events - that's how you declare events and their handlers. The event handler is an object that responds to call method and takes event as an argument. All events should ideally be subclasses of Hermes::BaseEvent

This class inherits from Dry::Struct, so getting familiar with dry-struct gem would be beneficial. Here is an example event:

class Payment::MarkedAsPaid < Hermes::BaseEvent
  attribute :payment_id, Types::Strict::Integer
  attribute :cents, Types::Strict::Integer
  attribute :currency, Types::Strict::String
end

To keep things clean, you might want to prefix the namespace with Events:

class Events::Payment::MarkedAsPaid < Hermes::BaseEvent
  attribute :payment_id, Types::Strict::Integer
  attribute :cents, Types::Strict::Integer
  attribute :currency, Types::Strict::String
end

In both cases, the routing key will be the same (Events prefix is dropped) and will resolve to payment.marked_as_paid

To avoid unexpected problems, don't use restricted names for attribtes such as meta, routing_key, origin_headers, origin_body, trace_context, version.

You can also specify whether the event should be processed asynchronously using background_processor (default behavior) or synchronously. If you want the event to be processed synchronously, e.g. when doing RPC, use async: false option.

  1. rpc_call_timeout - a timeout for RPC calls, defaults to 10 seconds. Can be also customized per instance of RPC Client (covered later). Optional.

  2. instrumenter - instrumenter object responding to instrument method taking one string argument, one optional hash argument and a block.

For example:

module Instrumenter
  extend ::NewRelic::Agent::MethodTracer

  def self.instrument(name, payload = {})
    ActiveSupport::Notifications.instrument(name, payload) do
      self.class.trace_execution_scoped([name]) do
        yield if block_given?
      end
    end
  end
end

If you don't care about it, you can leave it empty.

  1. distributed_tracing_database_uri - If you want to enable distributed tracing, specify Postgres database URI. Optional.

  2. distributed_tracing_database_table - Table name for storing traces, by default it's hermes_distributed_traces. Optional.

  3. distributes_tracing_mapper - an object responding to call method taking one argument (a hash of attributes) which must return a hash as well. This hash will be used for assigning attributes when creating Hermes::DistributedTrace. It defaults to Hermes::DistributedTrace::Mapper, which uses logger_params_filter to remove sensitive info (this config option is covered below). You can either provide a custom mapper or pass a custom params filter, for example: Hermes::DistributedTrace::Mapper.new(params_filter: custom_params_filter)

  4. error_notification_service - an object responding to capture_exception method taking one argument (error). Its interface is based on Raven from Sentry Raven. By default Hermes::NullErrorNotificationService is used, which does nothing. Optional.

  5. database_error_handler - an object responding to callmethod taking one argument (error). Used when storing distributed traces. By default it usesHermes::DatabaseErrorHandlerwhich depends onerror_notification_service, so in most cases, you will probably want to just configure error_notification_service`. Optional.

  6. enable_safe_producer - a method requiring a job class implementing enqueue method that will be responsible for retrying delivery of the event later in case it fails. Check Safe Event Producer section for more details.

  7. producer_retryable - used when safe_producer was enabled via (enable_safe_producer). By default, it is a method retrying delivery 3 times rescuing from StandardError each time. The object responsible for this behavior by default is: Hermes::Retryable.new(times: 3, errors: [StandardError]).

  8. logger_params_filter - a service used as params filter for logger, to make sure no sensitive data will be logged. It defaults to Hermes::Logger::ParamsFilter which already performs some filtering but it might not be enough in your case. If you are not satisfied with the defaults, you have 2 options, which are especially simple in Rails apps:

  • provide custom array of sensitive attributes and still use a default filter: Hermes::Logger::ParamsFilter.new(sensitive_keywords: Rails.application.config.filter_parameters).
  • provide custom filter object, which responds to call method and takes 2 arguments: attribute name and its value and performs mutation by using gsub! (don't worry, the entire body is cloned before passing it to the filter, so nothing unexpected will happen). This is compatible with the interface of Rails.application.config.filter_parameters when you use a custom filter there. In such case, you can do something like this: Rails.application.config.filter_parameters = [Proc.new { |k, v| do_something_custom_here(k, v) }] and then just assign Rails.application.config.filter_parameters.first in the Hermes config.

RPC

If you want to handle RPC call, you need to add rpc: true flag. Keep in mind that RPC requires a synchronous processing and response, so you also need to set async: false. The routing key and correlation ID will be resolved based on the message that is published by the client. The payload that is sent back will be what event handler reutrns, so it might be a good idea to just return a hash so that you can operate on JSON easily.

Publishing

To publish an async event call Hermes::Publisher:

Hermes::EventProducer.publish(event)

event is an instance of a subclass of Events::BaseEvent.

If you want to perform a synchronous RPC call, use Hermes::RpcClient:

parsed_response_hash = Hermes::RpcClient.call(event)

You can also use an explicit initializer and provide custom rpc_call_timeout:

parsed_response_hash = Hermes::RpcClient.new(rpc_call_timeout: 10).call(event)

If the request timeouts, Hermes::RpcClient::RpcTimeoutError will be raised.

APM and tracing

The integration is enabled automatically if you use newrelic_rpm gem via Hutch::Tracers::NewRelic or via Hermes::Tracers::Datadog when using ddtrace gem.

You can also provide your own tracer, as long as it implements an interface expected by [Hutch][https://github.com/ruby-amqp/hutch].

Distributed Tracing (experimental feature, the interface might change in the future)

If you want to take advantage of distributed tracing, you need to specify distributed_tracing_database_uri in the config and in many cases that will be enough, although there are some cases where some extra code will be required to properly use it.

If you have a "standard" flow, which means producing events and then consuming them in the jobs specified by background_processor and publishing other events from the same class, then you don't need to do anything extra as things will be handled out-of-box. In such scenario, at least two Hermes::DistributedTrace will be created (one for producer, and the rest for consumers and then potential other traces if the consumer also published some events).

However, if you enqueue some job inside the job specified by background_processor, you will need to do something extra:

  1. You need to pass origin_headers as an argument to the job to have headers available. You can extract them inside the handler from the event by calling event.origin_headers
  2. When processing the job, you will need to assign these headers to Hermes:
Hermes.origin_headers = origin_headers

These origin_headers will be stored in RequestStore.store (it uses request_store).

Traces are also stored for RPC calls. For a single RPC, there will be traces:

  1. Client (the actual RPC call)
  2. Server (processing the request)
  3. Client (processing the response) - that one uses a special internal event to keep the consistency: ResponseEvent, which stores response_body as a hash.

You will also need to create an appropriate database table:

create_table(:hermes_distributed_traces) do |t|
  t.string "trace", null: false
  t.string "span", null: false
  t.string "parent_span"
  t.string "service", null: false
  t.text "event_class", null: false
  t.text "routing_key", null: false
  t.jsonb "event_body", null: false, default: []
  t.jsonb "event_headers", null: false, default: []
  t.datetime "created_at", precision: 6, null: false
  t.datetime "updated_at", precision: 6, null: false

  t.index ["created_at"], name: "index_hermes_distributed_traces_on_created_at", using: :brin
  t.index ["trace"], name: "index_hermes_distributed_traces_on_trace"
  t.index ["span"], name: "index_hermes_distributed_traces_on_span"
  t.index ["service"], name: "index_hermes_distributed_traces_on_service"
  t.index ["event_class"], name: "index_hermes_distributed_traces_on_event_class"
  t.index ["routing_key"], name: "index_hermes_distributed_traces_on_routing_key"
end

Some important attributes to understand which will be useful during potential debugging:

  1. trace - ID of the trace - all events from the same saga will have the same value (and that's why it's important to properly deal with origin_headers).
  2. span - ID of the operation.
  3. parent span - span value of the previous operation from the previous service.
  4. service - name of the service where the given event occured, based on application_prefix,

It is highly recommended to use a shared database for storing traces. It's not ideal, but the benefits of storing traces in a single DB shared by the applications outweigh the disadvantages in many cases.

Since distributed tracing is a secondary feature, all exceptions coming from the database are rescued. It is highly recommended to provide error_notification_service to be notified about these errors. If you are not happy with that behavior and you would prefer to have errors raised, you can implement your own database_error_handler where you can re-raise the exception.

Safe Event Producer

Most likely in your production environment you are going to have a high availability setup with more than one node, probably at least 3. This might seem like there is very little chance that something will go wrong when publishing an event to RabbitMQ and even if it happens, it will be so rare that you will handle any exceptions manually. However, operations like updating Erlang will most likely require a downtime, which will mean that you might have a lot of errors during that period. Not to mention other potential issues, even without scheduled downtime, like the entire cluster being down for random reason or timeouts.

In that case, it might be a good idea to have some automated way of dealing with this kind of issues. For that purpose, you can enable a Safe Event Producer - by default, it's going to try publishing event 3 times, rescuing twice from StandardError, and if it fails after a 3rd time, it's going to use error_notification_service to deliver info about the error that ahppened and is going to call enqueue method on a specified object.

To take advantage of this feature, apply the following logic in the initializer

Hermes.configure do |config|
  config.error_notification_service = Raven # required for this use case
  config.enable_safe_producer(HermesRecoveryJob)
end

HermesRecoveryJob is expected to implement enqueue method taking 3 arguments: event_class_name, event_body and headers. What happens in enqueue method is up to you. You can, for example, schedule publishing the message in 5 minutes from now. However, the job should call Hermes::RetryableEventProducer.publish(event_class, event_body, headers) to properly handle the delivery retry flow. Here is an example job class using Sidekiq:

class HermesRecoveryJob
  include Sidekiq::Worker

  sidekiq_options queue: :hermes_recovery

  def self.enqueue(event_class, event_body, origin_headers)
    perform_at(5.minutes.from_now, event_class, event_body, origin_headers)
  end

  def perform(event_class, event_body, origin_headers)
    Hermes::RetryableEventProducer.publish(event_class, event_body, origin_headers)
  end
end

Testing

RSpec useful stuff

Put this inside rails_helper. Note that it requires webmock and sidekiq.

  def execute_jobs_inline
    original_active_job_adapter = ActiveJob::Base.queue_adapter
    ActiveJob::Base.queue_adapter = :inline
    Sidekiq::Testing.inline! do
      yield
    end
    ActiveJob::Base.queue_adapter = original_active_job_adapter
  end

  config.around(:example, :inline_jobs) do |example|
    execute_jobs_inline { example.run }
  end

  class ActiveRecord::Base
    mattr_accessor :shared_connection

    def self.connection
      shared_connection.presence || retrieve_connection
    end
  end

  config.after(:each) do
    Hermes::Publisher.instance.reset
  end

  config.before(:each, :with_rabbit_mq) do
    ActiveRecord::Base.shared_connection = ActiveRecord::Base.connection

    stub_request(:get, "http://127.0.0.1:15672/api/exchanges")
    stub_request(:get, "http://127.0.0.1:15672/api/bindings")

    hutch_publisher = Hermes::Publisher::HutchAdapter.new
    Hermes::Publisher.instance.current_adapter = hutch_publisher

    @worker_thread = Thread.new do
      Hutch.connect

      worker = Hutch::Worker.new(Hutch.broker, Hutch.consumers, Hutch::Config.setup_procs)
      worker.run
    end

    sleep 0.2
  end

  config.after(:each, :with_rabbit_mq) do |example|
    @worker_thread.kill
  end

To run integrations specs (with real RabbitMQ process), use inline_jobs and with_rabbit_mq meta flags.

Example integration spec with RabbitMQ

require "rails_helper"

RSpec.describe "Example Event Test", :with_rabbit_mq, :inline_jobs do
  describe "when Events::Example::Happened is published" do
    subject(:publish_event) { Hermes::EventProducer.publish(event) }

    let(:event) { Events::Example::Happened.new(event_params) }
    let(:event_params) do
      {
        name: name
      }
    end
    let(:name) { "hermes" }

    it "calls Example::HappenedHandler" do
      expect(Example::HappenedHandler).to receive(:call)
        .with(instance_of(Events::Example::Happened)).and_call_original

      publish_event
      sleep 0.2 # since this is an async action, some delay will be required, either with a simple way like this, or you may want to go with something more complex to not put ugly `sleep` here
    end
  end
end

Matchers

E.g. in spec/supports/matchers/publish_async_message:

require "hermes/support/matchers/publish_async_message"

And then use it in the following way:

expect {
  call
}.to publish_async_message(routing_key_of_the_expected_event).with_event_payload(expected_event_payload)

Note that expected_event_payload does not contain extra meta key that is added by Hermes publisher, it's just a symbolized hash with the result of the serialization of the event.

Example test of HermesHandlerJob

require "rails_helper"

RSpec.describe HermesHandlerJob do
  it { is_expected.to be_processed_in :critical }

  describe "#perform" do
    subject(:perform) { described_class.new.perform(EventClassForTestingHermesHandlerJob.to_s, payload, headers) }

    let(:configuration) { Hermes.configuration }
    let(:event_handler) { Hermes::EventHandler.new }
    let(:payload) do
      {
        "bookingsync" => "hermes"
      }
    end
    let(:headers) do
      {}
    end
    class EventClassForTestingHermesHandlerJob < Hermes::BaseEvent
      attribute :bookingsync, Types::Strict::String
    end
    class HandlerForEventClassForTestingHermesHandlerJob
      def self.event
        @event
      end

      def self.call(event)
        @event = event
      end
    end

    before do
      event_handler.handle_events do
        handle EventClassForTestingHermesHandlerJob, with: HandlerForEventClassForTestingHermesHandlerJob
      end
    end

    around do |example|
      original_event_handler = configuration.event_handler

      Hermes.configure do |config|
        config.event_handler = event_handler
      end

      example.run

      Hermes.configure do |config|
        config.event_handler = original_event_handler
      end
    end

    it "calls proper handler with a given event" do
      perform

      expect(HandlerForEventClassForTestingHermesHandlerJob.event).to be_a(EventClassForTestingHermesHandlerJob)
      expect(HandlerForEventClassForTestingHermesHandlerJob.event.bookingsync).to eq "hermes"
    end
  end
end

Deployment and managing consumers

Hermes is just an extra layer on top of hutch, refer to Hutch's docs for more info about dealing with the workers and deployment.

Health Checks

If you want to perform a health check, use Hermes::Checks::HealthCheck.check, which checks if it's possible to connect RabbitMQ via Hutch.

The interface is compliant with health_check[https://github.com/ianheggie/health_check] gem. If you want to add the custom health check, just add this to the config:

config.add_custom_check("hermes") do
  Hermes::Checks::HealthCheck.check
end

You can also use bin/health_check file to perform healthcheck - on success, the script exits with 0 status and on failure, it logs the error and exits with 1 status.

To perform the actual check:

  1. Via health_check gem:
curl -v localhost:3000/health_check/hermes.json
  1. Via binary:
bundle exec hermes_health_check

CircleCI config for installing RabbitMQ

Use - image: brandembassy/rabbitmq:latest

Development

After checking out the repo, run bin/setup to install dependencies. Then, run rake spec to run the tests. You can also run bin/console for an interactive prompt that will allow you to experiment.

To install this gem onto your local machine, run bundle exec rake install. To release a new version, update the version number in version.rb, and then run bundle exec rake release, which will create a git tag for the version, push git commits and tags, and push the .gem file to rubygems.org.

Contributing

Bug reports and pull requests are welcome on GitHub at https://github.com/BookingSync/hermes-rb.

License

The gem is available as open source under the terms of the MIT License.