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Rails engine for managing user accounts within UC Berkeley's auth system
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 Dependencies
 Project Readme

UCB Rails User

A Rails engine that provides authentication and user management for UCB Rails apps. By adding this engine to your app, you get:

  • a full User model which can be customized by host apps
  • login and logout via CAS
  • automatic creation of user records following CAS authentication
  • controller filters that block access to resources unless user is logged in
  • a default home page that reflects user's login status
  • admin screens for updating and deleting user records
  • ability for admins to impersonate other users

This engine also includes the Datatables JQuery plug-in, which is used in the user management screens, and typeahead.js for autocomplete. Host apps can make use of these libraries as well.

Conversion to UCPath

Version 2.0 and greater of this gem sets a user's employee_id to the new UCPath employee id, rather than the legacy HCM employee id. If you need to use the older ID, use version 1.1.3 of this gem, or lower.

Upgrading to version 3.0+ from version 2.x

See this wiki page for details.

Prerequisites

  • Ruby >= 2.3
  • Rails >= 5.1

Older versions may work as well, but they haven't been tested.

Installation

The easiest way to use this is to generate a new app with the ucb_rails command-line tool, which has this engine integrated as a gem and automates most of the steps below for you.

But if you need to add this to an already-existing app, do the following:

  1. Add the required gems to your Gemfile:
gem "ucb_rails_user", github: "ucb-ist-eas/ucb_rails_user"
gem "ucb_ldap", github: "ucb-ist-eas/ucb-ldap"

then run bundler to install them:

bundle install
  1. Set the RAILS_MASTER_KEY environment variable and setup an encrypted credentials file containing (at least) the credentials needed to connect to LDAP (ask another dev to help get this setup for you).

  2. Add this line to your host app's ApplicationController:

include UcbRailsUser::Concerns::ControllerMethods
  1. Copy this initializer file into your host app's config/initializer directory.

  2. Setup a root path in config/routes.rb, if you haven't already. You can use the default home page provided by this gem, if you like:

root to: UcbRailsUser::HomeController.action(:index)
  1. Copy the migrations for the User and Impersonation models from the engine into your host app, and run them:
bin/rails railties:install:migrations
bin/rake db:migrate
  1. Update your assets files

In application.css add this line:

*= require ucb_rails_user/main

And in application.js add this line:

//= require ucb_rails_user/scripts
  1. Restart your host app as usual

You should be able to access the following routes:

  • /: if you're using UcbRailsUser::HomeController#index as your home page, you should see a simple screen showing your login status
  • /login: this should redirect you to the main CAS login page
  • /logout: this should log you out of CAS and redirect you back to the host app
  • /admin/users: this should display the user management screen, if your user account has the superuser flag set; otherwise, you'll see a 401 page
  • /admin/impersonations: this is the page used to start impersonating another user (see below)
  • /admin/stop_impersonation: this stops an active impersonation
  • /admin/users/toggle_superuser: in dev mode, you can use this url to turn the superuser flag of your account on and off

Routing

The config/routes.rb file will show you the routes that this engine provides out of the box. But if necessary, you can override these routes in your host app.

For example, if the admin screens for your app are under the /backend path rather than /admin, you can rewrite the route in your host app like this:

resources :users, controller: "ucb_rails_user/users", path: "backend/users", as: :backend_users

Session Managers

Authentication during login is handled by UCB's central auth system and this gem uses the omniauth-cas to manage the handshake. Once that is completed, we're handed the LDAP uid of the authenticated user, and, by default, this gem will attempt to pull the user's employee data and create or update a User record for them in the local database.

This behavior can be customized by writing your own user session manager. There are two steps to do this:

  1. Create a subclass of UcbRailsUser::UserSessionManager::Base. At a minimum you need to implement a login method that accepts the user's LDAP uid and returns a User instance (or raises an error if the process fails), and a current_user method that returns the User instance for the currently-logged-in user. Several implementations are included so you can look to these to base yours off of.

  2. Open config/initializers/ucb_rails_user.rb in your host app and change the user_session_manager config setting to the class your custom implementation:

    config.user_session_manager = "MyApp::MyCustomUserSessionManager"

User Impersonation

The impersonation feature allows admins to be logged in as a different user in the system. This is useful when trying to diagnose data-specific problems, as the admin can see exactly what the user sees.

Impersonation Permissions

By default, this feature is only available to superusers, but you can change this by overriding the User#can_impersonate? method and implementing any logic you prefer. See "Overriding Model And Controller Behavior" to see how to override methods in the User class.

Determining Who The Real User Is

In the past, this gem provided a controller and helper method called current_user which returned the User record associated with the logged-in user. With the impersonation feature in place, this behavior changes slightly.

As of version 3.0, current_user returns the currently logged-in user, unless that user is impersonating another user. In that case, current_user will return the impersonated user (referred to as the impersonation "target" in the code). Most of our existing apps rely on current_user to determine what should or should not be displayed, so the impersonation feature will work best for existing apps if current_user returns the impersonated user.

Version 3.0 also adds a new method called logged_in_user that always returns the actual logged-in user (whether or not that user is impersonating someone else).

For example:

Alice is an admin who has logged into the system:

  • logged_in_user returns Alice
  • current_user returns Alice

Alice then starts impersonating Bob:

  • logged_in_user returns Alice
  • current_user returns Bob

Alice stops impersonating Bob:

  • logged_in_user returns Alice
  • current_user returns Alice

Controller Methods

If you followed the setup instructions above, your ApplicationController should be including UcbRails::Concerns::ControllerMethods. This provides a number of utility methods you can use in your controllers:

  • current_user: returns the User instance for the currently logged-in user, or nil if user is not logged in. If the logged-in user is impersonating another user, this will return the impersonated user
  • logged_in_user: this returns the user who logged in with their Calnet credentials, even if that user is impersonating another user
  • current_ldap_person: returns the UCB::LDAP::Person instance for the currently logged-in user, or nil if user is not logged in
  • logged_in?: returns true if the user is logged in
  • superuser?: returns true if the current user has the superuser flag set to true
  • ensure_authenticated_user: returns a 401 error if the user is not logged in
  • ensure_admin_user: returns a 401 error if the user is not a superuser

current_user, logged_in_user, current_ldap_person, logged_in? and superuser? are all helper methods, so you can use them in views as well as controllers.

ensure_authenticated_user is set as a before_filter so by default, all pages will require a login (except the HomeController included in this gem).

To make a page available to a non-logged-in user, add this line to your controller:

skip_before_action :ensure_authenticated_user

UsersController uses ensure_admin_user as a before_filter

Testing Support

This engine comes with a few features to help with testing.

The UcbRailsUser::UserSessionManager::TestSessionManager is a specialized session manager designed for test cases. It overrides the login method to lookup the given uid in the users table of the database. As long as the user record already exists, the login method will return successfully.

There is also a UcbRailsUser::SpecHelpers module that provides some support methods. Specifically, the login_user method can be used in request or integration specs to perform the behind-the-scenes work needed to login a given user. This method is implemented according to the omniauth gem documentation.

To add the testing support, add the following lines to your spec_helper.rb or rails_helper.rb file:

# add this line
require 'ucb_rails_user/spec_helpers'

# then, somewhere in this block...
RSpec.configure do |config|

  ...

  # ...add these lines
  config.include UcbRailsUser::SpecHelpers
  UcbRailsUser.config do |config|
    config.user_session_manager = "UcbRailsUser::UserSessionManager::TestSessionManager"
  end

Then, from within any request spec, you should be able to do this:

  it "should do some neato feature" do
    user = create(:user) # assumes you've added FactoryBot or similiar
    login_user(user)
  end

and the user should now be logged in.

NOTE: For system specs, the logic is a little different - use system_login_user rather than login_user in these specs.

Overriding Model And Controller Behavior

The host app can add or override behavior of the User model and UserController as needed. We've followed the conventions suggested in the Rails guide to make this as easy as possible.

To add to the User model, create a file named app/models/user.rb in your host app, and add the following code:

class User < ApplicationRecord
  include UcbRailsUser::UserConcerns

  # add your code here

end

Similarly, to override UserController, add app/controllers/ucb_rails/user_controller.rg and add the following:

class UcbRailsUser::UsersController < ApplicationController
  include UcbRailsUser::Concerns::UsersController

  # add your code here

end

Overriding The Default Home Page

If you're using the HomeController provided by this engine for your home page, you can change the views that are used for the logged in and not logged in states.

  • create the directory app/views/ucb_rails_user/home
  • inside that directory, create two files:
    • logged_in.html.haml
    • not_logged_in.html.haml

One of those two views will render when the user hits the home page, depending on whether or not they're currently logged in.